Volume 631, November 2019
|Number of page(s)||28|
|Published online||23 October 2019|
Observational constraints on the origin of the elements
Max Planck Institute for Astronomy,
2 Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Grabengasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
3 Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008, USA
4 Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
5 Department of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Herzen University, St. Petersburg 191186, Russia
6 Montessori-Schule Dachau, Geschwister-Scholl-Str. 2, 85221 Dachau, Germany
7 LUPM, UMR 5299, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, 34095 Montpellier, France
8 Rosseland Centre for Solar Physics, University of Oslo, PO Box 1029 Blindern, 0315 Oslo, Norway
9 Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, PO Box 1029 Blindern, 0315 Oslo, Norway
10 Institute for Solar Physics, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
Accepted: 12 June 2019
Manganese (Mn) is a key Fe-group element, commonly employed in stellar population and nucleosynthesis studies to explore the role of SN Ia. We have developed a new non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model of Mn, including new photo-ionisation cross-sections and new transition rates caused by collisions with H and H− atoms. We applied the model in combination with one-dimensional (1D) LTE model atmospheres and 3D hydrodynamical simulations of stellar convection to quantify the impact of NLTE and convection on the line formation. We show that the effects of NLTE are present in Mn I and, to a lesser degree, in Mn II lines, and these increase with metallicity and with the effective temperature of a model. Employing 3D NLTE radiative transfer, we derive a new abundance of Mn in the Sun, A(Mn) = 5.52 ± 0.03 dex, consistent with the element abundance in C I meteorites. We also applied our methods to the analysis of three metal-poor benchmark stars. We find that 3D NLTE abundances are significantly higher than 1D LTE. For dwarfs, the differences between 1D NLTE and 3D NLTE abundances are typically within 0.15 dex, however, the effects are much larger in the atmospheres of giants owing to their more vigorous convection. We show that 3D NLTE successfully solves the ionisation and excitation balance for the RGB star HD 122563 that cannot be achieved by 1D LTE or 1D NLTE modelling. For HD 84937 and HD 140283, the ionisation balance is satisfied, however, the resonance Mn I triplet lines still show somewhat lower abundances compared to the high-excitation lines. Our results for the benchmark stars confirm that 1D LTE modelling leads to significant systematic biases in Mn abundances across the full wavelength range from the blue to the IR. We also produce a list of Mn lines that are not significantly biased by 3D and can be reliably, within the 0.1 dex uncertainty, modelled in 1D NLTE.
Key words: stars: abundances / Sun: abundances / stars: atmospheres / Sun: atmosphere / line: formation / radiative transfer
The new cross-sections and rate coefficients are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/631/A80
The atomic model is available at https://keeper.mpdl.mpg.de/f/1ce2a838074b49fc9424/?dl=1
© M. Bergemann et al. 2019
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society.
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