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Fig. 1.


Star formation rate versus dense gas mass for distant and nearby Galactic star-forming clouds (green circles with and without horizontal error bars, respectively; Wu & Evans 2010; Lada et al. 2010) and mass accretion rate versus disk mass in Class II stars in Lupus (blue circles, upper limits as one-sided bars; Manara et al. 2016). Error bars are indicated when provided in the original works. The 3σ linear fit for stars and clouds is indicated with the green dotted region. The green solid square is the direct measurement of SFR and Mdg in Lupus. The blue solid circle is the sum of the accretion rates and disk masses of the Class II stars in Lupus, and the blue open circle includes 20 Class 0/I stars in that cloud with an average accretion rate of 1 × 10−6 M yr−1 and a minimum circumstellar mass of 0.1 M, that is, a maximum displacement in the x-axis given by f = 1% of the total dense gas mass in Lupus (see text).

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