Volume 639, July 2020
|Number of page(s)||18|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||07 July 2020|
X-shooter survey of disk accretion in Upper Scorpius
I. Very high accretion rates at age > 5 Myr⋆
European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
2 School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliams Place, Dublin 2, Ireland
3 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
4 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy
5 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy
6 Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Milano, Via Giovanni Celoria 16, 20133 Milano, Italy
7 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, L.go E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
8 Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
9 California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
10 Joint ALMA Observatory, Avenida Alonso de Córdova 3107, Santiago, Vitacura, Chile
11 SUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS, UK
12 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia, 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
13 Department of the Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
14 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
15 Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHA, UK
16 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
Accepted: 11 May 2020
Determining the mechanisms that drive the evolution of protoplanetary disks is a necessary step toward understanding how planets form. For this work, we measured the mass accretion rate for young stellar objects with disks at age > 5 Myr, a critical test for the current models of disk evolution. We present the analysis of the spectra of 36 targets in the ∼5–10 Myr old Upper Scorpius star-forming region for which disk masses were measured with ALMA. We find that the mass accretion rates in this sample of old but still surviving disks are similarly high as those of the younger (∼1−3 Myr old) star-forming regions of Lupus and Chamaeleon I, when considering the dependence on stellar and disk mass. In particular, several disks show high mass accretion rates ≳10−9 M⊙ yr−1 while having low disk masses. Furthermore, the median values of the measured mass accretion rates in the disk mass ranges where our sample is complete at a level ∼60−80% are compatible in these three regions. At the same time, the spread of mass accretion rates at any given disk mass is still > 0.9 dex, even at age > 5 Myr. These results are in contrast with simple models of viscous evolution, which would predict that the values of the mass accretion rate diminish with time, and a tighter correlation with disk mass at age > 5 Myr. Similarly, simple models of internal photoevaporation cannot reproduce the observed mass accretion rates, while external photoevaporation might explain the low disk masses and high accretion rates. A possible partial solution to the discrepancy with the viscous models is that the gas-to-dust ratio of the disks at ∼5–10 Myr is significantly different and higher than the canonical 100, as suggested by some dust and gas disk evolution models. The results shown here require the presence of several interplaying processes, such as detailed dust evolution, external photoevaporation, and possibly MHD winds, to explain the secular evolution of protoplanetary disks.
Key words: accretion, accretion disks / protoplanetary disks / stars: pre-main sequence / stars: variables: T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be
© ESO 2020
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