Volume 663, July 2022
|Number of page(s)||22|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||19 July 2022|
The protoplanetary disk population in the ρ-Ophiuchi region L1688 and the time evolution of Class II YSOs★
European Southern Observatory,
Garching bei München, Germany
2 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
3 School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2, Ireland
4 European Southern Observatory, Av. Alonso de Cόrdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago, Chile
5 Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Giovanni Celoria 16, 20133 Milano, Italy
6 Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cόrdova 3107, Vitacura 763-0355, Santiago, Chile
7 CENTRA/SIM, Faculdade de Ciencias de Universidade de Lisboa, Ed. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
8 Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA
9 Earths in Other Solar Systems Team, NASA Nexus for Exoplanet System Science, USA
10 Freie Universität Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Malteserstr. 74-100, 12249 Berlin, Germany
11 SUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of St. Andrews North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS, UK
12 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
13 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA
Accepted: 22 December 2021
Context. Planets form during the first few Myr of the evolution of the star-disk system, possibly before the end of the embedded phase. The properties of very young disks and their subsequent evolution reflect the presence and properties of their planetary content.
Aims. We present a study of the Class II/F disk population in L1688, the densest and youngest region of star formation in Ophiuchus. We also compare it to other well-known nearby regions of different ages, namely Lupus, Chamaeleon I, Corona Australis, Taurus and Upper Scorpius.
Methods. We selected our L1688 sample using a combination of criteria (available ALMA data, Gaia membership, and optical and near-IR spectroscopy) to determine the stellar and disk properties, specifically stellar mass (M⋆), average population age, mass accretion rate (Ṁacc) and disk dust mass (Ṁdust). We applied the same procedure in a consistent manner to the other regions. Results. In L1688 the relations between Ṁacc and M⋆, Mdust and M⋆, and Ṁacc and Mdust have a roughly linear trend with slopes 1.8–1.9 for the first two relations and ~1 for the third, which is similar to what found in the other regions. When ordered according to the characteristic age of each region, which ranging from ~ 0.5 to ~5 Myr, Ṁacc decreases as t−1, when corrected for the different stellar mass content; Mdust follows roughly the same trend, ranging between 0.5 and 5 Myr, but has an increase of a factor of ~3 at ages of 2–3 Myr. We suggest that this could result from an earlier planet formation, followed by collisional fragmentation that temporarily replenishes the millimeter-size grain population. The dispersion of Ṁacc and Mdust around the best-fitting relation with M⋆, as well as that of Ṁacc versus Mdust are equally large. When adding all the regions together to increase the statistical significance, we find that the dispersions have continuous distributions with a log-normal shape and similar widths (~0.8 dex).
Conclusions. This detailed study of L1688 confirms the general picture of Class II/F disk properties and extends it to a younger age. The amount of dust observed at ~1 Myr is not sufficient to assemble the majority of planetary systems, which suggests an earlier formation process for planetary cores. The dust mass traces to a large extent the disk gas mass evolution, even if the ratio Mdust/Mdisk at the earliest age (0.5–1 Myr) is not known. Two properties are still not understood: the steep dependence of Ṁacc and Mdust on M⋆ and the cause of the large dispersion in the three relations analyzed in this paper, in particular that of the Ṁacc versus Mdust relation.
Key words: protoplanetary disks / submillimeter: planetary systems / stars: formation
Full Tables A.1–G.1 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/663/A98
© ESO 2022
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