Volume 632, December 2019
|Number of page(s)||26|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||26 November 2019|
X-shooter spectroscopy of young stars with disks
Eberhard Karls Universität, Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Sand 1, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
2 Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
3 NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Blvd, Mountain View, CA 94035, USA
4 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy
5 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy
6 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
7 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via S. Sofia, 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
8 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy
9 Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy
10 Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2, Ireland
11 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Florence, Italy
12 SUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY169SS, UK
Accepted: 6 September 2019
Context. Measurements of the fraction of disk-bearing stars in clusters as a function of age indicate protoplanetary disk lifetimes ≲10 Myr. However, our knowledge of the time evolution of mass accretion in young stars over the disk lifespans is subject to many uncertainties, especially at the lowest stellar masses (M⋆).
Aims. We investigate ongoing accretion activity in young stars in the TW Hydrae association (TWA). The age of the association (∼8–10 Myr) renders it an ideal target for probing the final stages of disk accretion, and its proximity (∼50 pc) enables a detailed assessment of stellar and accretion properties down to brown dwarf masses.
Methods. Our sample comprises eleven TWA members with infrared excess, amounting to 85% of the total TWA population with disks. Our targets span spectral types between M0 and M9, and masses between 0.58 M⊙ and 0.02 M⊙. We employed homogeneous spectroscopic data from 300 nm to 2500 nm, obtained synoptically with the X-shooter spectrograph, to derive the individual extinction, stellar parameters, and accretion parameters for each object simultaneously. We then examined the luminosity of Balmer lines and forbidden emission lines to probe the physics of the star–disk interaction environment.
Results. Disk-bearing stars represent around 24% of the total TWA population. We detected signatures of ongoing accretion for 70% of our TWA targets for which accurate measurements of the stellar parameters could be derived. This implies a fraction of accretors between 13–17% across the entire TWA (that accounts for the disk-bearing and potentially accreting members not included in our survey). The spectral emission associated with these stars reveals a more evolved stage of these accretors compared to younger PMS populations studied with the same instrument and analysis techniques (e.g., Lupus): first, a large fraction (∼50%) exhibit nearly symmetric, narrow Hα line profiles; second, over 80% of them exhibit Balmer decrements that are consistent with moderate accretion activity and optically thin emission; third, less than a third exhibit forbidden line emission in [O I] 6300 Å, which is indicative of winds and outflows activity; and fourth, only one sixth exhibit signatures of collimated jets. However, the distribution in accretion rates (Ṁacc) derived for the TWA sample closely follows that of younger regions (Lupus, Chamaeleon I, σ Orionis) over the mass range of overlap (M⋆ ∼ 0.1–0.3 M⊙). An overall correlation between Ṁacc and M⋆ is detected and best reproduced by the function Ṁacc ∝ M∝2.1±0.5.
Conclusion. At least in the lowest M⋆ regimes, stars that still retain a disk at ages ∼8–10 Myr are found to exhibit statistically similar, albeit moderate, accretion levels as those measured around younger objects. This “slow” Ṁacc evolution that is apparent at the lowest masses may be associated with longer evolutionary timescales of disks around low-mass stars, which is suggested by the mass-dependent disk fractions reported in the literature within individual clusters.
Key words: accretion / accretion disks / techniques: spectroscopic / stars: low-mass / stars: pre-main sequence / open clusters and associations: individual: TWA
Reduced spectra are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/632/A46
Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programs 084.C–0269(B), 085.C–0238(A), 086.C–0173(A), 087.C–0244(A), 287.C–5039(A), 089.C–0143(A), 093.C–0097(A), and 095.C–0147(A).
© ESO 2019
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