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Fig. 12

image

One of the sources of low predictability are oscillations around zero of the closest-to-zero finite-time Lyapunov exponent. The existence of both expanding and contracting directions is stronger when d0.5 ≈ 0.0. Left: variation in d0.5 for the L-orbits, close to disc orbits. Right: variation in d0.5 for the H-orbits, orbits with higher z. The flattening is fixed to be qz = 1.25 in both panels. The H-orbits show the lowest values, with the orbits of higher initial velocities having the closest-to-zero values. These strong oscillations around zero are the source for the very low predictabilities shown in Fig. 4.

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