Evolution of the total planetary masses as a function of orbital distance for a proto-solar system with the giant planets ending up in a configuration similar to the initial conditions of the Nice model. Jupiter starts at t0 = 1.65 Myr, Saturn at t0 = 1.77 Myr, and Neptune and Uranus both at t0 = 1.81 Myr. The big black circles label a total disc evolution time of 3.0 Myr, while the small black dots indicate 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, 2.6, and 2.8 Myr. We display Neptune inside of Uranus here, since they often switch places during the Nice model (Tsiganis et al. 2005). We used Zdust = 0.5% and a metallicity of pebbles of Z = 1.0% as in our nominal disc model.
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