Final masses of planets (total mass MP = Mc + Menv) as a function of formation distance r0 and formation time t0 in the disc. Planets that are below the dark blue line have reached pebble isolation mass and can accrete gas. All planets that are below the white line have Mc<Menv, indicating that they have undergone runaway gas accretion. The yellow line marks the pebble production line; planets below the yellow line cannot have formed by pebble accretion, because the pebbles have not yet formed at the insertion time of the planet. The black lines indicate the final orbital distance rf of the planet. Each point in (r0,t0) corresponds to the final mass of one individual evolution track as shown in Fig. 2. The white crosses indicate the initial orbital positions and times for the planetary evolution tracks shown in Fig. 2.
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.