Planet trapping in the frame co-rotating with the vortex. The left upper panel demonstrates a planet initially set inside the vortex (position 0), which comes out and moves to the position 1 and then returns back to 2. Afterwards, it oscillates around position 5 until it is locked to the vortex at this location. We illustrate the planet’s behaviour in the right upper panel in a more exaggerated way to show the radial migration of the planet as well. The lower panel shows the semi-major axis of the planet by time. The numbers denote the times of the marked positions in the left upper panel. We marked the positive and negative torques from the vortex by the + and − signs. The indirect torque from the star has the opposite sign of the vortex torque (Sect. 4).
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