Volume 572, December 2014
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||28 November 2014|
Planet-vortex interaction: How a vortex can shepherd a planetary embryo
1 Heidelberg University, Center for Astronomy, Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Albert Ueberle Str. 2, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
2 School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
4 Institut für Astronomie & Astrophysik, Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
5 Konkoly Observatory, Research Center for Astronomy and Earth Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary
6 CEA, Irfu, SAp, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
Received: 20 September 2013
Accepted: 26 September 2014
Context. Anti-cyclonic vortices are considered to be a favourable places for trapping dust and forming planetary embryos. On the other hand, they are massive blobs that can interact gravitationally with the planets in the disc.
Aims. We aim to study how a vortex interacts gravitationally with a planet that migrates towards the vortex or with a planet that is created inside the vortex.
Methods. We performed hydrodynamical simulations of a viscous locally isothermal disc using GFARGO and FARGO-ADSG. We set a stationary Gaussian pressure bump in the disc so that a large vortex is formed and maintained as a result of Rossby wave instability (RWI). After the vortex is established, we implanted a low-mass planet ([5,1,0.5] × 10-6M⋆) in the outer disc or inside the vortex and allowed it to migrate. We also examined the effect of vortex strength on the planet migration by doubling the height of the bump and checked the validity of the final result in the presence of self-gravity.
Results. We noticed that regardless of the planet’s initial position, the planet is finally locked to the RWI-created vortex in a 1:1 resonance or its migration is stopped at a larger orbital distance, in case of a stronger vortex. For the model with the weaker vortex (our standard model), we studied the effect of different parameters such as background viscosity, background surface density, mass of the planet, and different planet positions. In these models, while the trapping time and locking angle of the planet vary for different parameters, the main result, which is the planet-vortex locking, remains valid. We discovered that even a planet with a mass less than 5 × 10-7M⋆ comes out from the vortex and is locked to it at the same orbital distance. For a stronger vortex, both in non-self-gravitating and self-gravitating models, the planet migration is stopped far away from the radial position of the vortex. This effect can make the vortices a suitable place for continual planet formation under the condition that they save their shape during the planetary growth.
Key words: accretion, accretion disks / hydrodynamics / protoplanetary disks / planet-disk interactions
© ESO, 2014
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