Free Access

Fig. 1

thumbnail

Right: 3D representation of the problem. The yellow sphere is the unit sphere centred on the star. P marks the direction of the orbital angular momentum vector Lp and S that of the stellar spin Ls. The dashed circle passing through points A and S gathers all the points making an angle Ψ with P. It is represented in the top left. Top left: circle of the unit sphere gathering all the points at colatitude Ψ with respect to the orbital angular momentum vector of the planet. A is the point facing the observer; S is the point corresponding to the direction of the stellar spin. A and S are projected on the diameter of this circle perpendicular to the line of sight onto A and S; φs is then . Bottom left: projected plane, as seen by the observer. The previous dashed circle is now a dashed horizontal line, on which A and S are the projections of A and S along the direction of the line of sight. The arc PR defines an angle Ψ, while the projected spin-orbit angle β is , marked in red.

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.