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Fig. 5


Histogram of the temperature (top) and density (bottom) vs. optical depth for the TO simulation (Teff = 6500 K / log  g = 4.0) with solar and sub-solar metallicity ([Fe / H] = −3.0). Additionally, the histogram of a single layer (log τRoss = −4.0) is indicated for the whole layer (black) and separated in up- and downflows (blue and red, respectively). Dashed lines: ⟨3D⟩z averages; dotted lines: ⟨3D⟩m; solid lines: ⟨3D⟩Ross; blue solid lines: 1D MLT models.

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