Plots of time evolution of energy for particle orbit 1 (initial pitch angle 165.8°). Shown are the total kinetic energy (upper left panel), the parallel energy (upper right panel), the perpendicular energy (lower left panel), and the energy associated with the E × B-drift motion (lower right panel). In the normalisation discussed in the text, the numbers on the x-axis can be interpreted as seconds and the numbers on the y-axis as electron volts.
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