Flux density at 1 mm vs. spectral index between 1 and 3 mm. In each panel red, blue and green points represent observational data of disks in Class II YSOs in Taurus (Ricci et al. 2010a, and this work), Ophiuchus (Ricci et al. 2010b), and Orion Nebula Cluster (Ricci et al. 2011a,b), respectively. The 1 mm-fluxes in the Orion Nebula Cluster have been multiplied by a factor of (420 pc/140 pc)2 to compensate for the different distances estimated for the Orion (~420 pc, Menten et al. 2007) and Taurus/Ophiuchus regions (~140 pc, Bertout et al. 1999; Wilking et al. 2008). Red empty circles are the three Class II YSOs observed with CARMA and discussed in Appendix A. Black symbols show the model predictions for different unperturbed dust mass: triangles for 10-5 M⊙, stars for 10-4 M⊙, and squares for 10-3 M⊙. Solid lines connect disk models with the same unperturbed dust mass, whereas dashed lines connect models with the same constant filling factor f for the optically thick regions, with values indicated in the bottom right side of each panel. In each panel a given couple of the (γ, rc)-parameters has been assumed for the unperturbed disk structure, with values indicated in the top left corner.
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