Volume 564, April 2014
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||03 April 2014|
Millimetre spectral indices of transition disks and their relation to the cavity radius ⋆
1 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
2 Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
3 Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, Observatoire de Grenoble, CNRS/UJF UMR 5571, 414 rue de la Piscine, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
4 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138, USA
5 California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena CA 91125, USA
6 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
7 School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, 2 Dublin, Ireland
8 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
9 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
Received: 23 December 2013
Accepted: 24 February 2014
Context. Transition disks are protoplanetary disks with inner depleted dust cavities that are excellent candidates for investigating the dust evolution when there is a pressure bump. A pressure bump at the outer edge of the cavity allows dust grains from the outer regions to stop their rapid inward migration towards the star and to efficiently grow to millimetre sizes. Dynamical interactions with planet(s) have been one of the most exciting theories to explain the clearing of the inner disk.
Aims. We look for evidence of millimetre dust particles in transition disks by measuring their spectral index αmm with new and available photometric data. We investigate the influence of the size of the dust depleted cavity on the disk integrated millimetre spectral index.
Methods. We present the 3-mm (100 GHz) photometric observations carried out with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer of four transition disks: LkHα 330, UX Tau A, LRLL 31, and LRLL 67. We used the available values of their fluxes at 345 GHz to calculate their spectral index, as well as the spectral index for a sample of twenty transition disks. We compared the observations with two kinds of models. In the first set of models, we considered coagulation and fragmentation of dust in a disk in which a cavity is formed by a massive planet located at different positions. The second set of models assumes disks with truncated inner parts at different radii and with power-law dust-size distributions, where the maximum size of grains is calculated considering turbulence as the source of destructive collisions.
Results. We show that the integrated spectral index is higher for transition disks (TD) than for regular protoplanetary disks (PD) with mean values of = 2.70 ± 0.13 and = 2.20 ± 0.07 respectively. For transition disks, the probability that the measured spectral index is positively correlated with the cavity radius is 95%. High angular resolution imaging of transition disks is needed to distinguish between the dust trapping scenario and the truncated disk case.
Key words: accretion, accretion disks / protoplanetary disks / circumstellar matter / planets and satellites: formation
The final PdBI data used in the paper are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/564/A51
© ESO, 2014
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