V1094 Scorpii: A rare giant multi-ringed disk around a T Tauri star
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University,
PO Box 9513,
2 Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Gießenbachstraße, 85741 Garching bei München, Germany
3 CIPS, University of California, 501 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA, USA
4 Herzberg Astronomy & Astrophysics Programs, National Research Council of Canada, 5017 West Saanich Road, V9E 2E7 Victoria, BC, Canada
5 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
6 INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
7 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI, USA
8 Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, CB3 0HA, Cambridge, UK
9 Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Accepted: 4 May 2018
Context. A wide variety of ring-like dust structures have been detected in protoplanetary disks, but their origin and frequency are still unclear.
Aims. We aim to characterize the structure of an extended, multi-ringed disk discovered serendipitously in the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Lupus disk survey and put it in the context of the Lupus disk population.
Methods. ALMA observations in Band 6 at 234 GHz and Band 7 at 328 GHz at 0.3″ resolution toward the K6 star V1094 Sco in Lupus III are presented, and its disk structure analyzed. The spectral index αmm is determined in the inner 150 AU of the disk.
Results. The ALMA continuum data show a very extended disk with two gap-ring pairs. The gaps are located at 100 AU and 170 AU, the bright rings at 130 AU and 220 AU. Continuum emission is detected out to a 300 AU distance, similar to IM Lup but a factor of five larger than typically found for Lupus disks at this sensitivity and resolution. The bright central region of the disk (within 35 AU) is possibly optically thick at 1 mm wavelengths, and has a brightness temperature of only 13 K. The spectral index increases between the inner disk and the first ring at the location of the first gap.
Conclusions. Due to the low temperature of the disk midplane, snow lines can be excluded as the drivers behind the ring and gap formation in this disk. Disks the size of V1094 Sco are rare, and only 2.1 ± 1.5% of disks in Lupus show continuum emission beyond 200 AU. Possible connections between the large primordial disk population, transition disks, and exoplanets are discussed.
Key words: stars: pre-main sequence / stars: individual: V1094 Sco / techniques: interferometric / protoplanetary disks
© ESO 2018