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Fig. 1


Saturn’s sub-millimetre spectrum measured by Herschel/SPIRE in 2010. The spectrum consists of a long-wave channel (14–32 cm-1) and a short-wave channel (32–52 cm-1). Raw flux units of Janskys are shown in panel a); these are converted into radiance units in b) and to brightness temperatures in c), approximately represent the atmospheric temperature at the line-forming region. Key features of the spectrum – PH3, NH3 and CH4 – are labelled in c).

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