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Table 1

List of optical, near-IR, and mm–cm radio observatories contributing data to this work.

Optical and near-infrared
Observatory Tel. size Bands

Abastumani, Georgia 70 R
Armenzano, Italy 35 BRI
Armenzano, Italy 40 BVRI
Calar Alto, Spaina 220 R
Campo Imperatore, Italy 110 JHK
Crimean, Ukraine 70 BVRI
El Vendrell, Spain 20 R
Kitt Peak (MDM), USA 130 UBVRI
L’Ampolla, Spain 36 R
Lulin, Taiwan 40 R
New Mexico Skies, USA 30 VRI
Roque (KVA), Spain 35 R
Sabadell, Spain 50 R
St. Petersburg, Russia 40 BVRI
Talmassons, Italy 35 BVR
Teide (BRT), Spain 35 BVR
Tuorla, Finland 103 R
Valle d’Aosta, Italy 81 BVRI

Observatory Tel. size Frequencies
[m] [GHz]

Mauna Kea (SMA), USA 8 × 6b 230, 345
Medicina, Italy 32 5, 8, 22
Metsähovi, Finland 14 37
Noto, Italy 32 43
UMRAO, USA 26 4.8, 8.0, 14.5



Calar Alto data were acquired as part of the MAPCAT (Monitoring AGN with Polarimetry at the Calar Alto Telescopes) project;


radio interferometer including 8 dishes of 6 m size.

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