Volume 659, March 2022
|Number of page(s)||43|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||08 March 2022|
Chemical survey of Class I protostars with the IRAM-30 m★
INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri,
Largo E. Fermi 5,
2 Università degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
3 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), 38000 Grenoble, France
4 École doctorale de Physique, Université Grenoble Alpes, 110 rue de la Chimie, 38400 Saint-Martin-d’Hères, France
5 Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 38406 Saint-Martin d’Hères, France
Accepted: 10 November 2021
Context. Class I protostars are a bridge between Class 0 protostars (≤105 yr old), and Class II (≥106 yr) protoplanetary disks. Recent studies show gaps and rings in the dust distribution of disks younger than 1 Myr, suggesting that planet formation may start already at the Class I stage. To understand what chemistry planets will inherit, it is crucial to characterize the chemistry of Class I sources and to investigate how chemical complexity evolves from Class 0 protostars to protoplanetary disks.
Aims. There are two goals: (i) to perform a census of the molecular complexity in a sample of four Class I protostars, and (ii) to compare the data with the chemical compositions of earlier and later phases of the Sun-like star formation process.
Methods. We performed IRAM-30 m observations at 1.3 mm towards four Class I objects (L1489-IRS, B5-IRS1, L1455-IRS1, and L1551-IRS5). The column densities of the detected species were derived assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) or large velocity gradients (LVGs).
Results. We detected 27 species: C-chains, N-bearing species, S-bearing species, Si-bearing species, deuterated molecules, and interstellar complex organic molecules (iCOMs; CH3OH, CH3CN, CH3CHO, and HCOOCH3). Among the members of the observed sample, L1551-IRS5 is the most chemically rich source. Different spectral profiles are observed: (i) narrow lines (~1 km s−1) towards all the sources, (ii) broader lines (~4 km s−1) towards L1551-IRS5, and (iii) line wings due to outflows (in B5-IRS1, L1455-IRS1, and L1551-IRS5). Narrow c-C3H2 emission originates from the envelope with temperatures of 5–25 K and sizes of ~2′′−10′′. The iCOMs in L1551-IRS5 reveal the occurrence of hot corino chemistry, with CH3OH and CH3CN lines originating from a compact (~0.′′15) and warm (T > 50 K) region. Finally, OCS and H2S seem to probe the circumbinary disks in the L1455-IRS1 and L1551-IRS5 binary systems. The deuteration in terms of elemental D/H in the molecular envelopes is: ~10−70% (D2CO/H2CO), ~5−15% (HDCS/H2CS), and ~1−23% (CH2DOH/CH3OH). For the L1551-IRS5 hot corino we derive D/H ~2% (CH2DOH/CH3OH).
Conclusions. Carbon chain chemistry in extended envelopes is revealed towards all the sources. In addition, B5-IRS1, L1455-IRS1, and L1551-IRS5 show a low-excitation methanol line that is narrow and centered at systemic velocity, suggesting an origin from an extended structure, plausibly UV-illuminated. The abundance ratios of CH3CN, CH3CHO, and HCOOCH3 with respect to CH3OH measured towards the L1551-IRS5 hot corino are comparable to that estimated at earlier stages (prestellar cores, Class 0 protostars), and to that found in comets. The deuteration in our sample is also consistent with the values estimated for sources at earlier stages. These findings support the inheritance scenario from prestellar cores to the Class I phase when planets start forming.
Key words: astrochemistry / stars: formation / ISM: molecules
A copy of the reduced spectra is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/659/A67
© ESO 2022
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