Volume 652, August 2021
|Number of page(s)||9|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||20 August 2021|
Mapping the zonal winds of Jupiter’s stratospheric equatorial oscillation
Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire,
2 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
3 Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228, USA
4 Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique/Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (LMD/IPSL), Sorbonne Université, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Ecole Polytechnique, Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS), Campus Pierre et Marie Curie BC99, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France
5 Institut Universitaire de France, Paris, France
6 Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Accepted: 9 July 2021
Context. Since the 1950s, quasi-periodic oscillations have been studied in the terrestrial equatorial stratosphere. Other planets of the Solar System present (or are expected to present) such oscillations; for example the Jupiter equatorial oscillation and the Saturn semi-annual oscillation. In Jupiter’s stratosphere, the equatorial oscillation of its relative temperature structure about the equator is characterized by a quasi-period of 4.4 yr.
Aims. The stratospheric wind field in Jupiter’s equatorial zone has never been directly observed. In this paper, we aim to map the absolute wind speeds in Jupiter’s equatorial stratosphere in order to quantify vertical and horizontal wind and temperature shear.
Methods. Assuming geostrophic equilibrium, we apply the thermal wind balance using almost simultaneous stratospheric temperature measurements between 0.1 and 30 mbar performed with Gemini/TEXES and direct zonal wind measurements derived at 1 mbar from ALMA observations, all carried out between March 14 and 22, 2017. We are thus able to self-consistently calculate the zonal wind field in Jupiter’s stratosphere where the JEO occurs.
Results. We obtain a stratospheric map of the zonal wind speeds as a function of latitude and pressure about Jupiter’s equator for the first time. The winds are vertically layered with successive eastward and westward jets. We find a 200 m s−1 westward jet at 4 mbar at the equator, with a typical longitudinal variability on the order of ~50 m s−1. By extending our wind calculations to the upper troposphere, we find a wind structure that is qualitatively close to the wind observed using cloud-tracking techniques.
Conclusions. Almost simultaneous temperature and wind measurements, both in the stratosphere, are a powerful tool for future investigations of the JEO (and other planetary equatorial oscillations) and its temporal evolution.
Key words: planets and satellites: atmospheres / planets and satellites: gaseous planets / planets and satellites: individual: Jupiter
© B. Benmahi et al. 2021
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