Volume 652, August 2021
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Section||The Sun and the Heliosphere|
|Published online||23 August 2021|
Chromospheric heating and generation of plasma outflows by impulsively generated two-fluid magnetoacoustic waves
Institute of Physics, University of M. Curie-Skłodowska, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
2 Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics/Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
Accepted: 10 June 2021
Context. The origin of the heating of the solar atmosphere is still an unsolved problem. As the photosphere and chromosphere radiate more energy than the solar corona, it is challenging but important to reveal all the mechanisms that contribute to plasma heating there. Ion–neutral collisions could play an important role.
Aims. We aim to investigate the impulsively generated two-fluid magnetoacoustic waves in the partially ionized solar chromosphere and to study the associated heating and plasma outflows, which higher up may result in nascent solar wind.
Methods. To describe the plasma dynamics, we applied a two-fluid model in which ions+electrons and neutrals are treated as separate fluids. We solved the two-fluid equations numerically using the JOANNA code.
Results. We show that magnetoacoustic waves triggered in the photosphere by localised velocity pulses can steepen into shocks which heat the chromosphere through ion–neutral collisions. Pulses of greater amplitude heat plasma more effectively and generate larger plasma outflows. Rising the altitude at which the pulse is launched results in opposite effects, mainly in local cooling of the chromosphere and slower plasma outflows.
Conclusions. Even a solitary pulse results in a train of waves. These waves can transform into shock waves and release thermal energy, heating the chromosphere significantly. A pulse can drive vertical flows which higher up can result in the origin of the solar wind.
Key words: Sun: activity / Sun: chromosphere
© ESO 2021
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