Volume 649, May 2021
|Number of page(s)||23|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||12 May 2021|
The Corona Borealis supercluster: connectivity, collapse, and evolution
Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu, Observatooriumi 1, 61602 Tõravere, Estonia
2 Estonian Academy of Sciences, Kohtu 6, 10130 Tallinn, Estonia
3 ICRANet, Piazza della Repubblica 10, 65122 Pescara, Italy
4 Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland
5 Biodiversity Unit, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland
Accepted: 23 February 2021
Context. Rich superclusters of galaxies represent dynamically active environments in which galaxies and their systems form and evolve.
Aims. We study the dynamical properties and connectivity of the richest galaxy clusters in the Corona Borealis (CB) supercluster and of the whole supercluster, and analyse star formation of galaxies in them with the aim to understand the evolution of the supercluster and the galaxies within it. We compare it with the supercluster SCl A2142.
Methods. We used the luminosity-density field to determine the high-density cores of the CB. We identified the richest galaxy clusters in them and studied the dynamical state of the clusters, analysed their substructure, and studied the star formation properties of galaxies in them using normal mixture modelling and the projected phase space diagram. We determined filaments in the supercluster to analyse the connectivity of clusters. To understand the possible future evolution of the CB, we compared the mass distribution in it with predictions from the spherical collapse model and analysed the gravitational acceleration field in the CB.
Results. The richest clusters in the high-density cores of the CB are the Abell clusters A2065, A2061 (together with A2067), A2089, and Gr2064. At a radius R30 around each cluster (corresponding to the density contrast Δρ ≈ 30), the galaxy distribution shows a minimum. The R30 values for individual clusters lie in the range of 3 − 6 h−1 Mpc. The radii of the clusters (splashback radii) lie in the range of Rcl ≈ 2 − 3 Rvir. The projected phase space diagrams and the comparison with the spherical collapse model suggest that R30 regions have passed turnaround and are collapsing, forming infall regions around each cluster. Galaxies in the richest cluster of the CB, A2065, and in its infall region have on average younger stellar populations than other clusters and their environment. The cluster A2061 has the highest fraction of galaxies with very old stellar populations, similar to those in A2142. The number of long filaments that begin near clusters vary from one near A2089 to five near A2061. The total connectivity of these clusters (the number of infalling groups and filaments) varies from two to nine.
Conclusions. During the future evolution, the clusters in the main part of the CB may merge and form one of the largest bound systems in the nearby Universe. Another part, with the cluster Gr2064, will form a separate system. Our study suggests that structures with a current characteristic density contrast Δρ ≈ 30 have passed turnaround and started to collapse at redshifts z ≈ 0.3 − 0.4. The comparison of the number and properties of the most massive collapsing supercluster cores from observations and simulations may serve as a test for cosmological models.
Key words: large-scale structure of Universe / galaxies: clusters: general / galaxies: groups: general
© ESO 2021
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