Supercluster A2142 and collapse in action: infalling and merging groups and galaxy transformations
1 Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu, Observatooriumi 1, 61602 Tõravere, Estonia
2 School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dong-Dae-Mun-Gu, Seoul, 02455, Korea
3 Center for Advanced Computation, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Hoegiro 87, Dong-dae-mun-gu, Seoul, 130-722, Korea
4 Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
5 Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany
6 Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, Piikkiö, Finland
7 Aalto University, Metsähovi Radio Observatory, Metsähovintie 114, 02540 Kylmälä, Finland
8 Aalto University Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, PO Box 15500 00076 Aalto, Finland
9 Estonian Academy of Sciences, Kohtu 6, 10130 Tallinn, Estonia
10 ICRANet, Piazza della Repubblica 10, 65122 Pescara, Italy
Accepted: 9 October 2018
Context. Superclusters with collapsing cores represent dynamically evolving environments for galaxies, galaxy groups, and clusters.
Aims. We study the dynamical state and properties of galaxies and groups in the supercluster SCl A2142 that has a collapsing core, to understand its possible formation and evolution.
Methods. We find the substructure of galaxy groups using normal mixture modelling. We have used the projected phase space (PPS) diagram, spherical collapse model, clustercentric distances, and magnitude gap between the brightest galaxies in groups to study the dynamical state of groups and to analyse group and galaxy properties. We compared the alignments of groups and their brightest galaxies with the supercluster axis.
Results. The supercluster core has a radius of about 8 h−1 Mpc and total mass Mtot ≈ 2.3 × 1015 h−1 M⊙ and is collapsing. Galaxies in groups on the supercluster axis have older stellar populations than off-axis groups, with median stellar ages 4 − 6 and < 4 Gyr, correspondingly. The cluster A2142 and the group Gr8 both host galaxies with the oldest stellar populations among groups in SCl A2142 having the median stellar age t > 8 Gyr. Recently quenched galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are mostly located at virial radii or in merging regions of groups, and at clustercentric distances Dc ≈ 6 h−1 Mpc. The most elongated groups lie along the supercluster axis and are aligned with it. Magnitude gaps between the brightest galaxies of groups are less than one magnitude, suggesting that groups in SCl A2142 are dynamically young.
Conclusions. The collapsing core of the supercluster, infall of galaxies and groups, and possible merging groups, which affect galaxy properties and may trigger the activity of AGNs, show how the whole supercluster is evolving.
Key words: large-scale structure of Universe / galaxies: groups: general / galaxies: clusters: general
© ESO 2018