Volume 648, April 2021
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Section||Letters to the Editor|
|Published online||07 April 2021|
Letter to the Editor
Formation of giant planets with large metal masses and metal fractions via giant impacts in a rapidly dissipating disk
National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka 181-8588, Tokyo, Japan
2 Astrobiology Center, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka 181-8588, Tokyo, Japan
3 Kurume University, 67 Asahimachi, Kurume 830-0011, Fukuoka, Japan
4 Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602, Aichi, Japan
Accepted: 22 March 2021
Context. According to planetary interior models, some giant planets contain large metal masses with large metal-mass fractions. HD 149026b and TOI-849b are characteristic examples of these giant planets. It has been suggested that the envelope mass loss during giant impacts plays a key role in the formation of such giant planets.
Aims. The aim of the present Letter is to propose a mechanism that can explain the origin of such giant planets.
Methods. We investigate the formation of giant planets in a rapidly dissipating disk using N-body simulations that consider pebble accretion.
Results. The results show that although the pebble isolation mass is smaller than the metal mass (≳30 Earth masses) in some giant planets, the interior metal mass can be increased by giant impacts between planets with the isolation mass. Regarding the metal fraction, the cores accrete massive envelopes by runaway gas accretion during the disk-dissipation phase of 1−10 Myr in a disk that evolves without photoevaporation. Although a large fraction of the envelope can be lost during giant impacts, the planets can reaccrete the envelope after impacts in a slowly dissipating disk. Here, we demonstrate that, by photoevaporation in a rapidly dissipating disk, the runaway gas accretion is quenched in the middle, resulting in the formation of giant planets with large metal-mass fractions.
Conclusions. The origins of HD 149026b and TOI-849b, which are characterized by their large metal-mass fractions, can be naturally explained by a model that considers a disk evolving with photoevaporation.
Key words: planets and satellites: formation / planets and satellites: atmospheres / protoplanetary disks
© ESO 2021
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