Volume 648, April 2021
|Number of page(s)||20|
|Section||Galactic structure, stellar clusters and populations|
|Published online||14 April 2021|
Milky Way archaeology using RR Lyrae and type II Cepheids
I. The Orphan stream in 7D using RR Lyrae stars
Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
2 Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma, Italy
3 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy
4 Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 6500, Porto Alegre 91501-970, Brazil
5 Space Science Data Center, via del Politecnico snc, 00133 Roma, Italy
6 Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
7 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
8 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy
9 Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, NSF’s National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Laboratory, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile
10 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
11 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste, Italy
12 Université de Nice Sophia-antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Laboratoire Lagrange, BP 4229, 06304 Nice, France
Accepted: 29 January 2021
We present a chemo-dynamical study of the Orphan stellar stream using a catalog of RR Lyrae pulsating variable stars for which photometric, astrometric, and spectroscopic data are available. Employing low-resolution spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we determined line-of-sight velocities for individual exposures and derived the systemic velocities of the RR Lyrae stars. In combination with the stars’ spectroscopic metallicities and Gaia EDR3 astrometry, we investigated the northern part of the Orphan stream. In our probabilistic approach, we found 20 single mode RR Lyrae variables likely associated with the Orphan stream based on their positions, proper motions, and distances. The acquired sample permitted us to expand our search to nonvariable stars in the SDSS dataset, utilizing line-of-sight velocities determined by the SDSS. We found 54 additional nonvariable stars linked to the Orphan stream. The metallicity distribution for the identified red giant branch stars and blue horizontal branch stars is, on average, −2.13 ± 0.05 dex and −1.87 ± 0.14 dex, with dispersions of 0.23 and 0.43 dex, respectively. The metallicity distribution of the RR Lyrae variables peaks at −1.80 ± 0.06 dex and a dispersion of 0.25 dex. Using the collected stellar sample, we investigated a possible link between the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Grus II and the Orphan stream. Based on their kinematics, we found that both the stream RR Lyrae and Grus II are on a prograde orbit with similar orbital properties, although the large uncertainties on the dynamical properties render an unambiguous claim of connection difficult. At the same time, the chemical analysis strongly weakens the connection between both. We argue that Grus II in combination with the Orphan stream would have to exhibit a strong inverse metallicity gradient, which to date has not been detected in any Local Group system.
Key words: Galaxy: halo / Galaxy: kinematics and dynamics / Galaxy: structure / stars: variables: RR Lyrae
© ESO 2021
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