Volume 647, March 2021
First science highlights from SRG/eROSITA
|Number of page(s)||18|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||26 February 2021|
Discovery of a supercluster in the eROSITA Final Equatorial Depth Survey: X-ray properties, radio halo, and double relics
Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik,
2 Hamburger Sternwarte, University of Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg, Germany
3 Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, LMU Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679 Munich, Germany
4 IFPU – Institute for Fundamental Physics of the Universe, Via Beirut 2, 34014 Trieste, Italy
5 Physics Program, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
6 Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
7 Core Research for Energetic Universe, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
8 Research Center for the Early Universe, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
9 Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
10 Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582, Japan
11 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 93/2, 40129 Bologna, Italy
12 INAF – IRA, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
13 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
14 ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
15 International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research - Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
16 Faculty of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679 Munich, Germany
17 Argelander-Institut für Astronomie (AIfA), Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn, Germany
18 INAF – IASF Milano, Via Bassini 15, 20133 Milano, Italy
Accepted: 21 December 2020
Aims. We examine the X-ray, optical, and radio properties of the member clusters of a new supercluster discovered during the SRG/eROSITA Performance Verification phase.
Methods. We analyzed the 140 deg2 eROSITA Final Equatorial Depth Survey (eFEDS) field observed during the Performance Verification phase to a nominal depth of about 2.3 ks. In this field, we detect a previously unknown supercluster consisting of a chain of eight galaxy clusters at z ~ 0.36. The redshifts of these members were determined through Hyper Suprime-Cam photometric measurements. We examined the X-ray morphological and dynamical properties, gas, and total mass out to R500 of the members and compare these with the same properties of the general population of clusters detected in the eFEDS field. We further investigated the gas in the bridge region between the cluster members for a potential WHIM detection. We also used radio follow-up observations with LOFAR and uGMRT to search for diffuse emission and constrain the dynamic state of the system.
Results. We do not find significant differences between the morphological parameters and properties of the intra-cluster medium of the clusters embedded in this large-scale filament and those of the eFEDS clusters. We also provide upper limits on the electron number density and mass of the warm-hot intergalactic medium as provided by the eROSITA data. These limits are consistent with previously reported values for the detections in the vicinity of clusters of galaxies. In LOFAR and uGMRT follow-up observations of the northern part of this supercluster, we find two new radio relics and a radio halo that are the result of major merger activity in the system.
Conclusions. These early results show the potential of eROSITA to probe large-scale structures such as superclusters and the properties of their members. Our forecasts show that we will be able to detect about 450 superclusters, with approximately 3000 member clusters located in the eROSITA_DE region at the final eROSITA all-sky survey depth, enabling statistical studies of the properties of superclusters and their constituents embedded in the cosmic web.
Key words: galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium / galaxies: clusters: general / X-rays: galaxies: clusters / intergalactic medium
© V. Ghirardini et al. 2021
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society.
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