Volume 647, March 2021
|Number of page(s)||28|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||02 March 2021|
A survey of the linear polarization of directly imaged exoplanets and brown dwarf companions with SPHERE-IRDIS
First polarimetric detections revealing disks around DH Tau B and GSC 6214-210 B★
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University,
PO Box 9513,
2300 RA Leiden,
2 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile
3 Institute for Particle Physics and Astrophysics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
4 University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
5 Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
6 Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
7 Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore 21218, MD, USA
8 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
9 Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
10 Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-Chilena de Astronomía (CNRS, UMI 3386), Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
11 Physics Building, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QL, UK
12 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
13 Université de Lyon, Université Lyon1, ENS de Lyon, CNRS, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon UMR 5574, 69230 Saint-Genis-Laval, France
14 Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
15 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
16 Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso, Chile
17 Núcleo Milenio Formación Planetaria – NPF, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso, Chile
18 Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg, Germany
19 Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, France
20 Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile
21 Escuela de Ingeniería Industrial, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile
Accepted: 18 December 2020
Context. Young giant planets and brown dwarf companions emit near-infrared radiation that can be linearly polarized up to several percent. This polarization can reveal the presence of an (unresolved) circumsubstellar accretion disk, rotation-induced oblateness of the atmosphere, or an inhomogeneous distribution of atmospheric dust clouds.
Aims. We aim to measure the near-infrared linear polarization of 20 known directly imaged exoplanets and brown dwarf companions.
Methods. We observed the companions with the high-contrast imaging polarimeter SPHERE-IRDIS at the Very Large Telescope. We reduced the data using the IRDAP pipeline to correct for the instrumental polarization and crosstalk of the optical system with an absolute polarimetric accuracy <0.1% in the degree of polarization. We employed aperture photometry, angular differential imaging, and point-spread-function fitting to retrieve the polarization of the companions.
Results. We report the first detection of polarization originating from substellar companions, with a polarization of several tenths of a percent for DH Tau B and GSC 6214-210 B in H-band. By comparing the measured polarization with that of nearby stars, we find that the polarization is unlikely to be caused by interstellar dust. Because the companions have previously measured hydrogen emission lines and red colors, the polarization most likely originates from circumsubstellar disks. Through radiative transfer modeling, we constrain the position angles of the disks and find that the disks must have high inclinations. For the 18 other companions, we do not detect significant polarization and place subpercent upper limits on their degree of polarization. We also present images of the circumstellar disks of DH Tau, GQ Lup, PDS 70, β Pic, and HD 106906. We detect a highly asymmetric disk around GQ Lup and find evidence for multiple scattering in the disk of PDS 70. Both disks show spiral-like features that are potentially induced by GQ Lup B and PDS 70 b, respectively.
Conclusions. The presence of the disks around DH Tau B and GSC 6214-210 B as well as the misalignment of the disk of DH Tau B with the disk around its primary star suggest in situ formation of the companions. The non-detections of polarization for the other companions may indicate the absence of circumsubstellar disks, a slow rotation rate of young companions, the upper atmospheres containing primarily submicron-sized dust grains, and/or limited cloud inhomogeneity.
Key words: methods: observational / techniques: high angular resolution / techniques: polarimetric / planets and satellites: formation / planets and satellites: atmospheres / protoplanetary disks
© ESO 2021
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.