Volume 646, February 2021
|Number of page(s)||22|
|Published online||02 February 2021|
Search for flares and associated CMEs on late-type main-sequence stars in optical SDSS spectra★
Institute of Physics/IGAM, University of Graz,
2 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
Accepted: 9 November 2020
Aims. This work aims to detect and classify stellar flares and potential stellar coronal mass ejection (CME) signatures in optical spectra provided by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 14. The sample is constrained to all F, G, K, and M main-sequence type stars, resulting in more than 630 000 stars. This work makes use of the individual spectral exposures provided by the SDSS.
Methods. An automatic flare search was performed by detecting significant amplitude changes in the Hα and Hβ spectral lines after a Gaussian profile was fit to the line core. CMEs were searched for by identifying asymmetries in the Balmer lines caused by the Doppler effect of plasma motions in the line of sight.
Results. We identified 281 flares on late-type stars (spectral types K3 – M9). We identified six possible CME candidates showing excess flux in Balmer line wings. Flare energies in Hα were calculated and masses of the CME candidates were estimated. The derived Hα flare energies range from 3 × 1028 − 2 × 1033 erg. The Hα flare energy increases with earlier types, while the fraction of flaring times increases with later types. Mass estimates for the CME candidates are in the range of 6 × 1016 − 6 × 1018 g, and the highest projected velocities are ~300−700 km s−1.
Conclusions. The low detection rate of CMEs we obtained agrees with previous studies, suggesting that for late-type main-sequence stars the CME occurrence rate that can be detected with optical spectroscopy is low.
Key words: stars: activity / stars: flare / stars: late-type
Table C.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/646/A34
© ESO 2021
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