Volume 644, December 2020
|Number of page(s)||19|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||02 December 2020|
Accretion bursts in magnetized gas-dust protoplanetary disks
Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna,
2 Southern Federal University, Research Institute of Physics, Rostov-on-Don, 344090 Russia
3 Ural Federal University, 51 Lenin Str., 620051 Ekaterinburg, Russia
4 Theoretical Physics Department, Chelyabinsk State University, 454001 Chelyabinsk, Russia
5 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada
6 Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d’Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
Accepted: 30 October 2020
Aims. Accretion bursts triggered by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the innermost disk regions were studied for protoplanetary gas-dust disks that formed from prestellar cores of a various mass Mcore and mass-to-magnetic flux ratio λ.
Methods. Numerical magnetohydrodynamics simulations in the thin-disk limit were employed to study the long-term (~1.0 Myr) evolution of protoplanetary disks with an adaptive turbulent α-parameter, which explicitly depends on the strength of the magnetic field and ionization fraction in the disk. The numerical models also feature the co-evolution of gas and dust, including the back-reaction of dust on gas and dust growth.
Results. A dead zone with a low ionization fraction of x≲10−13 and temperature on the order of several hundred Kelvin forms in the inner disk soon after its formation, extending from several to several tens of astronomical units depending on the model. The dead zone features pronounced dust rings that are formed due to the concentration of grown dust particles in the local pressure maxima. Thermal ionization of alkaline metals in the dead zone trigger the MRI and associated accretion burst, which is characterized by a sharp rise, small-scale variability in the active phase, and fast decline once the inner MRI-active region is depleted of matter. The burst occurrence frequency is highest in the initial stages of disk formation and is driven by gravitational instability (GI), but it declines with diminishing disk mass-loading from the infalling envelope. There is a causal link between the initial burst activity and the strength of GI in the disk fueled by mass infall from the envelope. We find that the MRI-driven burst phenomenon occurs for λ = 2–10, but diminishes in models with Mcore ≲ M⊙, suggesting a lower limit on the stellar mass for which the MRI-triggered burst can occur.
Conclusions. The MRI-triggered bursts occur for a wide range of mass-to-magnetic flux ratios and initial cloud core masses. The burst occurrence frequency is highest in the initial disk formation stage and reduces as the disk evolves from a gravitationally unstable to a viscous-dominated state. The MRI-triggered bursts are intrinsically connected with the dust rings in the inner disk regions, and both can be a manifestation of the same phenomenon, that is to say the formation of a dead zone.
Key words: stars: protostars / protoplanetary disks / accretion, accretion disks / instabilities
© ESO 2020
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