Volume 631, November 2019
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||11 October 2019|
Gravitoviscous protoplanetary disks with a dust component
II. Spatial distribution and growth of dust in a clumpy disk★
Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna,
2 Research Institute of Physics, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don 344090, Russia
3 Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, 22100 Lund, Sweden
Accepted: 27 August 2019
Aims. Spatial distribution and growth of dust in a clumpy protoplanetary disk subject to vigorous gravitational instability and fragmentation is studied numerically with sub-au resolution using the FEOSAD code.
Methods. Hydrodynamics equations describing the evolution of self-gravitating and viscous protoplanetary disks in the thin-disk limit were modified to include a dust component consisting of two parts: sub-micron-sized dust and grown dust with a variable maximum radius. The conversion of small to grown dust, dust growth, friction of dust with gas, and dust self-gravity were also considered.
Results. We found that the disk appearance is notably time-variable with spiral arms, dusty rings, and clumps, constantly forming, evolving, and decaying. As a consequence, the total dust-to-gas mass ratio is highly non-homogeneous throughout the disk extent, showing order-of-magnitude local deviations from the canonical 1:100 value. Gravitationally bound clumps formed through gravitational fragmentation have a velocity pattern that deviates notably from the Keplerian rotation. Small dust is efficiently converted into grown dust in the clump interiors, reaching a maximum radius of several decimeters. Concurrently, grown dust drifts towards the clump center forming a massive compact central condensation (70–100 M⊕). We argue that protoplanets may form in the interiors of inward-migrating clumps before they disperse through the action of tidal torques. We foresee the formation of protoplanets at orbital distances of several tens of au with initial masses of gas and dust in the protoplanetary seed in the (0.25–1.6) MJup and (1.0–5.5) M⊕ limits, respectively. The final masses of gas and dust in the protoplanets may however be much higher due to accretion from surrounding massive metal-rich disks/envelopes.
Conclusions. Dusty rings formed through tidal dispersal of inward-migrating clumps may have a connection to ring-like structures found in youngest and massive protoplanetary disks. Numerical disk models with a dust component that can follow the evolution of gravitationally bound clumps through their collapse phase to the formation of protoplanets are needed to make firm conclusions on the characteristics of planets forming through gravitational fragmentation.
Key words: protoplanetary disks / stars: formation / stars: protostars / hydrodynamics
The animation associated to Fig. 2 is available at https://www.aanda.org
© ESO 2019
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