Volume 641, September 2020
|Number of page(s)||21|
|Published online||24 September 2020|
CO emission in distant galaxies on and above the main sequence⋆
Cosmic Dawn Center (DAWN), Copenhagen, Denmark
2 Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Lyngbyvej 2, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
3 AIM, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
4 Center for Extragalactic Astronomy, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH13LE, UK
5 DTU-Space, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
6 Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Athens, Greece
7 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
8 Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago, Chile
9 Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, 34055 Daejeon, Republic of Korea
10 Purple Mountain Observatory & Key Laboratory for Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 10 Yuanhua Road, Nanjing 210033, PR China
11 Department of Astronomy, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, PR China
12 Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso, Chile
13 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
14 Universidad de La Laguna, Dpto. Astrofísica, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
15 NSF’s National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Laboratory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA
16 School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, 84 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623, USA
17 University of Hawaii, Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
Accepted: 21 June 2020
We present the detection of multiple carbon monoxide CO line transitions with ALMA in a few tens of infrared-selected galaxies on and above the main sequence at z = 1.1−1.7. We reliably detected the emission of CO (5 − 4), CO (2 − 1), and CO (7 − 6)+[C I](3P2 − 3P1) in 50, 33, and 13 galaxies, respectively, and we complemented this information with available CO (4 − 3) and [C I](3P1 − 3P0) fluxes for part of the sample, and by modeling of the optical-to-millimeter spectral energy distribution. We retrieve a quasi-linear relation between LIR and CO (5 − 4) or CO (7 − 6) for main-sequence galaxies and starbursts, corroborating the hypothesis that these transitions can be used as star formation rate (SFR) tracers. We find the CO excitation to steadily increase as a function of the star formation efficiency, the mean intensity of the radiation field warming the dust (⟨U⟩), the surface density of SFR (ΣSFR), and, less distinctly, with the distance from the main sequence (ΔMS). This adds to the tentative evidence for higher excitation of the CO+[C I] spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of starburst galaxies relative to that for main-sequence objects, where the dust opacities play a minor role in shaping the high-J CO transitions in our sample. However, the distinction between the average SLED of upper main-sequence and starburst galaxies is blurred, driven by a wide variety of intrinsic shapes. Large velocity gradient radiative transfer modeling demonstrates the existence of a highly excited component that elevates the CO SLED of high-redshift main-sequence and starbursting galaxies above the typical values observed in the disk of the Milky Way. This excited component is dense and it encloses ∼50% of the total molecular gas mass in main-sequence objects. We interpret the observed trends involving the CO excitation as to be mainly determined by a combination of large SFRs and compact sizes, as a large ΣSFR is naturally connected with enhanced dense molecular gas fractions and higher dust and gas temperatures, due to increasing ultraviolet radiation fields, cosmic ray rates, as well as dust and gas coupling. We release the full data compilation and the ancillary information to the community.
Key words: galaxies: evolution / galaxies: ISM / galaxies: starburst / galaxies: high-redshift
The data compilation described in Table D.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/641/A155
© ESO 2020
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