Volume 641, September 2020
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||18 September 2020|
Dust distribution around low-mass planets on converging orbits
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova,
via Marzolo 8,
2 Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
Accepted: 8 July 2020
Context. Super-Earths can form at large orbital radii and migrate inward due to tidal interactions with the circumstellar disk. In this scenario, convergent migration may occur and lead to the formation of resonant pairs of planets.
Aims. We explore the conditions under which convergent migration and resonance capture take place, and what dynamical consequences can be expected on the dust distribution surrounding the resonant pair.
Methods. We combine hydrodynamic planet–disk interaction models with dust evolution calculations to investigate the signatures produced in the dust distribution by a pair of planets in mean-motion resonances.
Results. We find that convergent migration takes place when the outer planet is the more massive. However, convergent migration also depends on the local properties of the disk, and divergent migration may result as well. For similar disk parameters, the capture in low degree resonances (e.g., 2:1 or 3:2) is preferred close to the star where the resonance strength can more easily overcome the tidal torques exerted by the gaseous disk. Farther away from the star, convergent migration may result in capture in high degree resonances. The dust distribution shows potentially observable features typically when the planets are trapped in a 2:1 resonance. In other cases, with higher degree resonances (e.g., 5:4 or 6:5) dust features may not be sufficiently pronounced to be easily observable.
Conclusions. The degree of resonance established by a pair of super-Earths may be indicative of the location in the disk where capture occurred. There can be significant differences in the dust distribution around a single super-Earth and a pair of super-Earths in resonance.
Key words: planet–disk interactions / zodiacal dust
© ESO 2020
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