Volume 640, August 2020
|Number of page(s)||17|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||07 August 2020|
Photometric detection of internal gravity waves in upper main-sequence stars
II. Combined TESS photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy
Institute of Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
2 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
3 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
4 X Computational Physics (XCP) Division and Center for Theoretical Astrophysics (CTA), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545, USA
5 School of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE1 7RU, UK
6 Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
7 Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, 69118 Heidelberg, Germany
8 Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
9 Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
10 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
Accepted: 1 June 2020
Context. Massive stars are predicted to excite internal gravity waves (IGWs) by turbulent core convection and from turbulent pressure fluctuations in their near-surface layers. These IGWs are extremely efficient at transporting angular momentum and chemical species within stellar interiors, but they remain largely unconstrained observationally.
Aims. We aim to characterise the photometric detection of IGWs across a large number of O and early-B stars in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, and explain the ubiquitous detection of stochastic variability in the photospheres of massive stars.
Methods. We combined high-precision time-series photometry from the NASA Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite with high-resolution ground-based spectroscopy of 70 stars with spectral types O and B to probe the relationship between the photometric signatures of IGWs and parameters such as spectroscopic mass, luminosity, and macroturbulence.
Results. A relationship is found between the location of a star in the spectroscopic Hertzsprung–Russell diagram and the amplitudes and frequencies of stochastic photometric variability in the light curves of massive stars. Furthermore, the properties of the stochastic variability are statistically correlated with macroturbulent velocity broadening in the spectral lines of massive stars.
Conclusions. The common ensemble morphology for the stochastic low-frequency variability detected in space photometry and its relationship to macroturbulence is strong evidence for IGWs in massive stars, since these types of waves are unique in providing the dominant tangential velocity field required to explain the observed spectroscopy.
Key words: asteroseismology / stars: early-type / stars: oscillations / stars: evolution / stars: rotation / stars: fundamental parameters
© ESO 2020
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