Volume 639, July 2020
|Number of page(s)||61|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||13 July 2020|
Variability of OB stars from TESS southern Sectors 1–13 and high-resolution IACOB and OWN spectroscopy⋆
Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
2 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
3 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
4 Centro de Astrobiología, CSIC-INTA, Campus ESAC, Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, 28692 Madrid, Spain
5 Nordic Optical Telescope, 38 711 Breña Baja, La Palma, Spain
6 Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany
7 Departamento de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de La Serena, Avenida Juan Cisternas 1200, La Serena, Chile
8 Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
9 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
Accepted: 17 May 2020
Context. The lack of high-precision long-term continuous photometric data for large samples of stars has impeded the large-scale exploration of pulsational variability in the OB star regime. As a result, the candidates for in-depth asteroseismic modelling have remained limited to a few dozen dwarfs. The TESS nominal space mission has surveyed the southern sky, including parts of the galactic plane, yielding continuous data across at least 27 d for hundreds of OB stars.
Aims. We aim to couple TESS data in the southern sky with ground-based spectroscopy to study the variability in two dimensions, mass and evolution. We focus mainly on the presence of coherent pulsation modes that may or may not be present in the predicted theoretical instability domains and unravel all frequency behaviour in the amplitude spectra of the TESS data.
Methods. We compose a sample of 98 OB-type stars observed by TESS in Sectors 1–13 and with available multi-epoch, high-resolution spectroscopy gathered by the IACOB and OWN surveys. We present the short-cadence 2 min light curves of dozens of OB-type stars, which have one or more spectra in the IACOB or OWN database. Based on these light curves and their Lomb–Scargle periodograms, we performed variability classification and frequency analysis. We placed the stars in the spectroscopic Hertzsprung–Russell diagram to interpret the variability in an evolutionary context.
Results. We deduce the diverse origins of the mmag-level variability found in all of the 98 OB stars in the TESS data. We find among the sample several new variable stars, including three hybrid pulsators, three eclipsing binaries, high frequency modes in a Be star, and potential heat-driven pulsations in two Oe stars.
Conclusions. We identify stars for which future asteroseismic modelling is possible, provided mode identification is achieved. By comparing the position of the variables to theoretical instability strips, we discuss the current shortcomings in non-adiabatic pulsation theory and the distribution of pulsators in the upper Hertzsprung–Russell diagram.
Key words: techniques: photometric / techniques: spectroscopic / stars: massive / stars: oscillations
Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope (FIES), operated by NOTSA, and the Mercator Telescope (HERMES), operated by the Flemish Community, both at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Spain) of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. In addition, observations collected with the FEROS spectrograph at the La Silla observatory in the framework of the OWN survey were used.
© ESO 2020
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