Volume 640, August 2020
|Number of page(s)||14|
|Section||The Sun and the Heliosphere|
|Published online||28 July 2020|
Formation and dynamics of transequatorial loops⋆
Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag – 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India
e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 25 May 2020
Aims. We aim to study the dynamical evolution of transequatorial loops (TELs) using imaging techniques and spectroscopy.
Methods. We used the images recorded by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory together with spectroscopic observations taken from the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode.
Results. The data from the AIA 193 Å channel show that TELs are formed between AR 12230 and a newly emerging AR 12234, evolving between 10 and 14 December 2014. The xt-plots for 12 December 2014, obtained using AIA 193 Å data, reveal signatures of inflow and outflow towards an X-region. High-cadence AIA images also show recurrent intensity enhancements in close proximity to the X-region (P2), which is observed to have higher intensities for spectral lines that are formed at log T[K] = 6.20 and voids at other higher temperatures. The electron densities and temperatures in the X-region (and P2) are maintained steadily at log Ne= 8.5–8.7 cm−3 and log T[K] = 6.20, respectively. Doppler velocities in the X-region show predominant redshifts by about 5–8 km s−1 when they are closer to the disk center but blueshifts (along with some zero-velocity pixels) when away from the center. The full-width-half-maximum maps reveal non-thermal velocities of about 27–30 km s−1 for Fe XII, Fe XIII, and Fe XV lines. However, the brightest pixels have nonthermal velocities ∼62 km s−1 for Fe XII and Fe XIII lines. On the contrary, the dark X-region for Fe XV line have the highest non-thermal velocity (∼115 km s−1).
Conclusions. We conclude that the TELs are formed due to magnetic reconnection. We further note that the TELs themselves undergo magnetic reconnection, which leads to the re-formation of loops among individual ARs. Moreover, this study, for the first time, provides measurements of plasma parameters in X-regions, thereby providing essential constraints for theoretical studies.
Key words: Sun: activity / Sun: photosphere / Sun: corona / Sun: magnetic fields / sunspots / Sun: flares
The movie associated to Fig. 3 is available at https://www.aanda.org
© ESO 2020
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