Volume 640, August 2020
|Number of page(s)||11|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||25 August 2020|
NH3 (1,1) hyperfine intensity anomalies in the Orion A molecular cloud
Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, CAS 150, Science 1-Street Urumqi,
2 Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, PR China
3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19(A) Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049, PR China
4 Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany
5 Astronomy Department, King Abdulaziz University, PO Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
6 School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023, PR China
Accepted: 16 June 2020
Ammonia (NH3) inversion lines, with their numerous hyperfine components, are a common tracer used in studies of molecular clouds (MCs). In local thermodynamical equilibrium, the two inner satellite lines (ISLs) and the two outer satellite lines (OSLs) of the NH3(J, K) = (1,1) transition are each predicted to have equal intensities. However, hyperfine intensity anomalies (HIAs) are observed to be omnipresent in star formation regions, a characteristic which is still not fully understood. In addressing this issue, we find that the computation method of the HIA by the ratio of the peak intensities may have defects, especially when used to process the spectra with low-velocity dispersions. Therefore, we defined the integrated HIAs of the ISLs (HIAIS) and OSLs (HIAOS) by the ratio of their redshifted to blueshifted integrated intensities (unity implies no anomaly) and developed a procedure to calculate them. Based on this procedure, we present a systematic study of the integrated HIAs in the northern part of the Orion A MC. We find that integrated HIAIS and HIAOS are commonly present in the Orion A MC and no clear distinction is found at different locations of the MC. The medians of the integrated HIAIS and HIAOS are 0.921 ± 0.003 and 1.422 ± 0.009, respectively, which is consistent with the HIA core model and inconsistent with the collapse or expansion (CE) model. In the selection of those 170 positions, where both integrated HIAs deviate by more than 3σ from unity, most (166) are characterized by HIAIS < 1 and HIAOS > 1, which suggests that the HIA core model plays a more significant role than the CE model. The remaining four positions are consistent with the CE model. We compare the integrated HIAs with the para-NH3 column density (N(para-NH3)), kinetic temperature (TK), total velocity dispersion (σv), non-thermal velocity dispersion (σNT), and the total opacity of the NH3(J, K) = (1,1) line (τ0). The integrated HIAIS and HIAOS are almost independent of N(para-NH3). The integrated HIAIS decreases slightly from unity (no anomaly) to about 0.7 with increasing TK, σv, and σNT. The integrated HIAOS is independent of TK and reaches values close to unity with increasing σv and σNT. The integrated HIAIS is almost independent of τ0, while the integrated HIAOS rises with τ0, thus showing higher anomalies. These correlations cannot be fully explained by either the HIA core nor the CE model.
Key words: stars: formation / ISM: individual objects: Orion A molecular cloud / ISM: molecules / line: profiles / radio lines: ISM
© ESO 2020
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