Volume 639, July 2020
|Number of page(s)||22|
|Published online||07 July 2020|
BSE versus StarTrack: Implementations of new wind, remnant-formation, and natal-kick schemes in NBODY7 and their astrophysical consequences
Helmholtz-Instituts für Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Nussallee 14-16, 53115 Bonn, Germany
2 Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn, Germany
3 Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa, Poland
4 Center for Theoretical Astrophysics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
5 National Astronomical Observatories and Key Laboratory of Computational Astrophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Rd., Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, PR China
6 Astronomisches Rechen-Institut am Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
7 Main Astronomical Observatory, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 27 Akademika Zabolotnoho St., 03143 Kyiv, Ukraine
8 Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia
9 Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, 5 Yi He Yuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100871, PR China
10 Department of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
11 RIKEN Center for Computational Science, 7-1-26 Minatojima-minami-machi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047, Japan
Accepted: 6 April 2020
Context. As a result of their formation via massive single and binary stellar evolution, the masses of stellar-remnant black holes (BH) are subjects of great interest in this era of gravitational-wave detection from binary black hole (BBH) and binary neutron star merger events.
Aims. In this work, we present new developments in the stellar-remnant formation and related schemes of the current N-body evolution program NBODY7. We demonstrate that the newly implemented stellar-wind and remnant-formation schemes in the stellar-evolutionary sector or BSE of the NBODY7 code, such as the “rapid” and the “delayed” supernova (SN) schemes along with an implementation of pulsational-pair-instability and pair-instability supernova (PPSN/PSN), now produce neutron star (NS) and BH masses that agree nearly perfectly, over large ranges of zero-age-main-sequence (ZAMS) mass and metallicity, with those from the widely recognised StarTrack population-synthesis program. We also demonstrate the new, recipe-based implementations of various widely debated mechanisms of natal kicks on NSs and BHs, such as “convection-asymmetry-driven”, “collapse-asymmetry-driven”, and “neutrino-emission-driven” kicks, in addition to a fully consistent implementation of the standard, fallback-dependent, momentum-conserving natal kick.
Methods. All the above newly implemented schemes are also shared with the standalone versions of SSE and BSE. All these demonstrations are performed with both the updated standalone BSE and the updated NBODY7/BSE.
Results. When convolved with stellar and primordial-binary populations as observed in young massive clusters, such remnant-formation and natal-kick mechanisms crucially determine the accumulated number, mass, and mass distribution of the BHs retained in young massive, open, and globular clusters (GCs); these BHs would eventually become available for long-term dynamical processing.
Conclusions. Among other conclusions, we find that although the newer, delayed SN remnant formation model gives birth to the largest number (mass) of BHs, the older remnant-formation schemes cause the largest number (mass) of BHs to survive in clusters, when incorporating SN material fallback onto the BHs. The SN material fallback also causes the convection-asymmetry-driven SN kick to effectively retain similar numbers and masses of BHs in clusters as for the standard, momentum-conserving kick. The collapse-asymmetry-driven SN kick would cause nearly all BHs to be retained in clusters irrespective of their mass, remnant-formation model, and metallicity, whereas the inference of a large population of BHs in GCs would potentially rule out the neutrino-driven SN kick mechanism. Pre-SN mergers of massive primordial binaries would potentially cause BH masses to deviate from the theoretical, single-star ZAMS to mass-remnant mass relation unless a substantial of the total merging stellar mass of up to ≈40% is lost during a merger process. In particular, such mergers, at low metallicities, have the potential to produce low-spinning BHs within the PSN mass gap that can be retained in a stellar cluster and be available for subsequent dynamical interactions. As recent studies indicate, the new remnant-formation modelling reassures us that young massive and open clusters would potentially contribute to the dynamical BBH merger detection rate to a similar extent as their more massive GC counterparts.
Key words: stars: black holes / stars: massive / stars: mass-loss / stars: kinematics and dynamics / supernovae: general / methods: numerical
© ESO 2020
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.