Volume 637, May 2020
|Number of page(s)||20|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||12 May 2020|
A new set of atmosphere and evolution models for cool T–Y brown dwarfs and giant exoplanets
Astrophysics Group, University of Exeter,
2 Maison de la Simulation, CEA, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
3 Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CRAL, UMR CNRS 5574, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
4 GEPI, Observatoire de Paris PSL Research University, UMR 8111, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 61 Avenue de l’Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France
5 Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095, CNRS, Université Paris VI, 98bis Boulevard Arago, Paris, France
6 Laboratoire de Chimie et de Physique Quantiques, Université de Toulouse (UPS) and CNRS, 118 route de Narbonne, 31400 Toulouse, France
7 Department of Astronomy and Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell University, 122 Sciences Drive, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA
8 Met Office, Fitzroy Road, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK
Accepted: 11 March 2020
We present a new set of solar metallicity atmosphere and evolutionary models for very cool brown dwarfs and self-luminous giant exoplanets, which we term ATMO 2020. Atmosphere models are generated with our state-of-the-art 1D radiative-convective equilibrium code ATMO, and are used as surface boundary conditions to calculate the interior structure and evolution of 0.001–0.075 M⊙ objects. Our models include several key improvements to the input physics used in previous models available in the literature. Most notably, the use of a new H–He equation of state including ab initio quantum molecular dynamics calculations has raised the mass by ~1−2% at the stellar–substellar boundary and has altered the cooling tracks around the hydrogen and deuterium burning minimum masses. A second key improvement concerns updated molecular opacities in our atmosphere model ATMO, which now contains significantly more line transitions required to accurately capture the opacity in these hot atmospheres. This leads to warmer atmospheric temperature structures, further changing the cooling curves and predicted emission spectra of substellar objects. We present significant improvement for the treatment of the collisionally broadened potassium resonance doublet, and highlight the importance of these lines in shaping the red-optical and near-infrared spectrum of brown dwarfs. We generate three different grids of model simulations, one using equilibrium chemistry and two using non-equilibrium chemistry due to vertical mixing, all three computed self-consistently with the pressure-temperature structure of the atmosphere. We show the impact of vertical mixing on emission spectra and in colour-magnitude diagrams, highlighting how the 3.5−5.5 μm flux window can be used to calibrate vertical mixing in cool T–Y spectral type objects.
Key words: brown dwarfs / planets and satellites: atmospheres / stars: evolution
© ESO 2020
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