Volume 618, October 2018
|Number of page(s)||32|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||12 October 2018|
The GJ 504 system revisited
Combining interferometric, radial velocity, and high contrast imaging data★
Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG,
2 Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, France
3 School of Earth & Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 85287, USA
4 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands
5 Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR 7293 UNS-CNRS-OCA, Boulevard de l’Observatoire, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France
6 Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
7 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
8 Maison de la Simulation, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, UVSQ, Universiteé Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
9 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate, Italy
10 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, France
11 Astrobiology Center of NINS, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588, Japan
12 National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588, Japan
13 Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
14 Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
15 CRAL, UMR 5574, CNRS, Université de Lyon, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
16 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell Osservatorio 5, 35122, Padova, Italy
17 Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
18 Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
19 Instituto de Astronomía y Ciencias Planetarias de Atacama, Copayapu 485, Copiap, Atacama, Chile
20 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
21 SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ, UK
22 Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-Chilena de Astronomía, CNRS/INSU UMI 3386 and Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, Chile
23 Office National d’Études et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA), Optics Department, BP 72, 92322 Châtillon, France
24 Astrophysics Department, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
25 Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Gxsoddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
26 Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan
27 European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
28 Institute for Particle Physics and Astrophysics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
29 Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107, USA
30 Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile
31 Escuela de Ingeniería Industrial, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile
32 NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation Group, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
Accepted: 28 June 2018
Context. The G-type star GJ504A is known to host a 3–35 MJup companion whose temperature, mass, and projected separation all contribute to making it a test case for planet formation theories and atmospheric models of giant planets and light brown dwarfs.
Aims. We aim at revisiting the system age, architecture, and companion physical and chemical properties using new complementary interferometric, radial-velocity, and high-contrast imaging data.
Methods. We used the CHARA interferometer to measure GJ504A’s angular diameter and obtained an estimation of its radius in combinationwith the HIPPARCOS parallax. The radius was compared to evolutionary tracks to infer a new independent age range for the system. We collected dual imaging data with IRDIS on VLT/SPHERE to sample the near-infrared (1.02–2.25 μm) spectral energy distribution (SED) of the companion. The SED was compared to five independent grids of atmospheric models (petitCODE,Exo-REM, BT-SETTL, Morley et al., and ATMO) to infer the atmospheric parameters of GJ 504b and evaluate model-to-model systematic errors. In addition, we used a specific model grid exploring the effect of different C/O ratios. Contrast limits from 2011 to 2017 were combined with radial velocity data of the host star through the MESS2 tool to define upper limits on the mass of additional companions in the system from 0.01 to 100 au. We used an MCMC fitting tool to constrain the companion’sorbital parameters based on the measured astrometry, and dedicated formation models to investigate its origin.
Results. We report a radius of 1.35 ± 0.04 R⊙ for GJ504A. The radius yields isochronal ages of 21 ± 2 Myr or 4.0 ± 1.8 Gyr for the system and line-of-sight stellar rotation axis inclination of 162.4−4.3+3.8 degrees or 186.6−3.8+4.3 degrees. We re-detect the companion in the Y2, Y3, J3, H2, and K1 dual-band images. The complete 1–4 μm SED shape of GJ504b is best reproduced by T8-T9.5 objects with intermediate ages (≤ 1.5Gyr), and/or unusual dusty atmospheres and/or super-solar metallicities. All atmospheric models yield Teff = 550 ± 50 K for GJ504b and point toward a low surface gravity (3.5–4.0 dex). The accuracy on the metallicity value is limited by model-to-model systematics; it is not degenerate with the C/O ratio. We derive log L∕L⊙ = −6.15 ± 0.15 dex for the companion from the empirical analysis and spectral synthesis. The luminosity and Teff yield masses of M = 1.3−0.3+0.6 MJup and M = 23−9+10 MJup for the young and old age ranges, respectively. The semi-major axis (sma) is above 27.8 au and the eccentricity is lower than 0.55. The posterior on GJ 504b’s orbital inclination suggests a misalignment with the rotation axis of GJ 504A. We exclude additional objects (90% prob.) more massive than 2.5 and 30 MJup with semi-major axes in the range 0.01–80 au for the young and old isochronal ages, respectively.
Conclusions. The mass and semi-major axis of GJ 504b are marginally compatible with a formation by disk-instability if the system is 4 Gyr old. The companion is in the envelope of the population of planets synthesized with our core-accretion model. Additional deep imaging and spectroscopic data with SPHERE and JWST should help to confirm the possible spin-orbit misalignment and refine the estimates on the companion temperature, luminosity, and atmospheric composition.
Key words: techniques: high angular resolution / stars: fundamental parameters / techniques: radial velocities / techniques: interferometric / planets and satellites: atmospheres / planets and satellites: formation
© ESO 2018
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