Volume 635, March 2020
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||02 April 2020|
Départment d’astronomie de l’Université de Genève,
51 ch. des Maillettes Sauverny,
1290 Versoix, Switzerland
2 Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, France
3 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
Accepted: 18 February 2020
Context. HD 13724 is a nearby solar-type star at 43.48 ± 0.06 pc hosting a long-period low-mass brown dwarf detected with the CORALIE echelle spectrograph as part of the historical CORALIE radial-velocity search for extra-solar planets. The companion has a minimum mass of 26.77−2.2+4.4 MJup and an expected semi-major axis of ~240 mas making it a suitable target for further characterisation with high-contrast imaging, in particular to measure its inclination, mass, and spectrum and thus establish its substellar nature.
Aims. Using high-contrast imaging with the SPHERE instrument on the Very Large Telescope (VLT), we are able to directly image a brown dwarf companion to HD 13724 and obtain a low-resolution spectrum.
Methods. We combine the radial-velocity measurements of CORALIE and HARPS taken over two decades and high-contrast imaging from SPHERE to obtain a dynamical mass estimate. From the SPHERE data we obtain a low-resolution spectrum of the companion from Y to J band, as well as photometric measurements from IRDIS in the J, H, and K bands.
Results. Using high-contrast imaging with the SPHERE instrument at the VLT, we report the first images of a brown dwarf companion orbiting the host star HD 13724. It has an angular separation of 175.6 ± 4.5 mas and an H-band contrast of 10.61 ± 0.16 mag, and using the age estimate of the star to be ~1 Gyr gives an isochronal mass estimate of ~44 MJup. By combining radial-velocity and imaging data we also obtain a dynamical mass of 50.5−3.5+3.3 MJup. Through fitting an atmospheric model, we estimate a surface gravity of logg = 5.5 and an effective temperature of 1000 K. A comparison of its spectrum with observed T dwarfs estimates a spectral type of T4 or T4.5, with a T4 object providing the best fit.
Key words: planetary systems / binaries: visual / techniques: radial velocities / techniques: high angular resolution / brown dwarfs
Based on observations collected with SPHERE mounted on the VLT at Paranal Observatory (ESO, Chile) under programmes 0102.C-0236(A) (PI: Rickman) and 0104.C-0702(B) (PI: Rickman) as well as observations collected with the CORALIE spectrograph mounted on the 1.2 m Swiss telescope at La Silla Observatory and with the HARPS spectrograph on the ESO 3.6 m telescope at La Silla (ESO, Chile).
The radial-velocity measurements, reduced images and additional data products discussed in this paper are available on the DACE web platform at https://dace.unige.ch/
© ESO 2020
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