Volume 637, May 2020
|Number of page(s)||26|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||08 May 2020|
Identification of filamentary structures in the environment of superclusters of galaxies in the Local Universe⋆
IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS/CNES/UPS, Toulouse, France
2 Departamento de Astronomía, DCNE-CGT, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato CP 36023, Mexico
Accepted: 3 February 2020
Context. Characterization of the internal structure of the superclusters of galaxies (walls, filaments, and knots where the clusters are located) is crucial for understanding the formation of the large-scale structure and for outlining the environment where galaxies evolved in the last few gigayears.
Aims. We aim to detect the compact regions of high relative density (clusters and rich groups of galaxies), to map the elongated structures of low relative density (filaments, bridges, and tendrils of galaxies), and to characterize the galaxies that populate the filaments and study the environmental effects they are subject to.
Methods. We used optical galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts from the SDSS-DR13 inside rectangular boxes encompassing the volumes of a sample of 46 superclusters of galaxies up to z = 0.15. A virial approximation was applied to correct the positions of the galaxies in the redshift space for the “finger of God” projection effect. Our methodology implements different classical pattern recognition and machine-learning techniques (Voronoi tessellation, hierarchical clustering, graph-network theory, and minimum spanning trees, among others), pipelined in the Galaxy System-Finding algorithm and the Galaxy Filament-Finding algorithm.
Results. In total, we detected 2705 galaxy systems (clusters and groups, of which 159 are new) and 144 galaxy filaments in the 46 superclusters of galaxies. The filaments we detected have a density contrast of above 3, with a mean value of around 10, a radius of about 2.5 h70−1 Mpc, and lengths of between 9 and 130 h70−1 Mpc. Correlations between the galaxy properties (mass, morphology, and activity) and the environment in which they reside (systems, filaments, and the dispersed component) suggest that galaxies closer to the skeleton of the filaments are more massive by up to 25% compared to those in the dispersed component; 70% of the galaxies in the filament region present early-type morphologies and the fractions of active galaxies (both AGNs and star-forming galaxies) seem to decrease as galaxies approach the filament.
Conclusions. Our results support the idea that galaxies in filaments are subject to environmental effects leading them to be more massive (probably due to larger rates of both merging and gas accretion), less active both in star formation and nuclear activity, and prone to the density–morphology relation. These results suggest that preprocessing in large-scale filaments could have significant effects on galaxy evolution.
Key words: galaxies: groups: general / galaxies: clusters: general / large-scale structure of Universe / methods: data analysis / galaxies: evolution
Full Table 4 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/637/A31
© I. Santiago-Bautista et al. 2020
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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