Volume 636, April 2020
|Number of page(s)||24|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||17 April 2020|
SUGAR: An improved empirical model of Type Ia supernovae based on spectral features⋆
Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique de Clermont, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
2 Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
3 LPNHE, CNRS/IN2P3, Sorbonne Université, Paris Diderot, Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et de Hautes Énergies, 75005 Paris, France
4 Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720, USA
5 Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven CT 06250-8121, USA
6 Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, 366 LeConte Hall MC 7300, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300, USA
7 Université de Lyon, 69622, Lyon, France; Université de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne; CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique des Deux Infinis, Lyon, France
8 The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, AlbaNova, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
9 Aix Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, UMR 7346, 13288 Marseille, France
10 Max-Planck Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
11 Institut fur Physik, Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15 12489, Berlin
12 Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 15735 Zeuthen, Germany
13 Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China
14 Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, 9 avenue Charles André, 69561 Saint Genis Laval, France
15 Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, University of California Berkeley, 341 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
16 Lomonosov Moscow State University, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetsky pr. 13, Moscow 119234, Russia
17 Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
18 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
19 Computational Cosmology Center, Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
20 Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583, Japan
Accepted: 16 September 2019
Context. Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are widely used to measure the expansion of the Universe. Improving distance measurements of SNe Ia is one technique to better constrain the acceleration of expansion and determine its physical nature.
Aims. This document develops a new SNe Ia spectral energy distribution (SED) model, called the SUpernova Generator And Reconstructor (SUGAR), which improves the spectral description of SNe Ia, and consequently could improve the distance measurements.
Methods. This model was constructed from SNe Ia spectral properties and spectrophotometric data from the Nearby Supernova Factory collaboration. In a first step, a principal component analysis-like method was used on spectral features measured at maximum light, which allowed us to extract the intrinsic properties of SNe Ia. Next, the intrinsic properties were used to extract the average extinction curve. Third, an interpolation using Gaussian processes facilitated using data taken at different epochs during the lifetime of an SN Ia and then projecting the data on a fixed time grid. Finally, the three steps were combined to build the SED model as a function of time and wavelength. This is the SUGAR model.
Results. The main advancement in SUGAR is the addition of two additional parameters to characterize SNe Ia variability. The first is tied to the properties of SNe Ia ejecta velocity and the second correlates with their calcium lines. The addition of these parameters, as well as the high quality of the Nearby Supernova Factory data, makes SUGAR an accurate and efficient model for describing the spectra of normal SNe Ia as they brighten and fade.
Conclusions. The performance of this model makes it an excellent SED model for experiments like the Zwicky Transient Facility, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, or the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope.
Key words: supernovae: general / cosmology: observations
The data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/636/A46
© P.-F. Léget et al. 2020
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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