Volume 635, March 2020
|Number of page(s)||20|
|Published online||11 March 2020|
XIII. Spatially resolved spectral properties of Lyman α haloes around star-forming galaxies at z > 3
Univ Lyon, Univ Lyon1, Ens de Lyon, CNRS, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon UMR5574, 69230 Saint-Genis-Laval, France
2 Observatoire de Genève, Universite de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
3 Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal
4 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
5 Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland
6 Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie (IRAP), Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, 31400 Toulouse, France
7 Tomonaga Center for the History of the Universe (TCHoU), Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571, Japan
8 ESO Vitacura, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla, 19001 Santiago de Chile, Chile
9 Leibniz-Institut fur Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany
Accepted: 6 February 2020
We present spatially resolved maps of six individually-detected Lyman α haloes (LAHs) as well as a first statistical analysis of the Lyman α (Lyα) spectral signature in the circum-galactic medium of high-redshift star-forming galaxies (−17.5 > MUV > −21.5) using the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer. Our resolved spectroscopic analysis of the LAHs reveals significant intrahalo variations of the Lyα line profile. Using a three-dimensional two-component model for the Lyα emission, we measured the full width at half maximum (FWHM), the peak velocity shift, and the asymmetry of the Lyα line in the core and in the halo of 19 galaxies. We find that the Lyα line shape is statistically different in the halo compared to the core (in terms of width, peak wavelength, and asymmetry) for ≈40% of our galaxies. Similarly to object-by-object based studies and a recent resolved study using lensing, we find a correlation between the peak velocity shift and the width of the Lyα line both at the interstellar and circum-galactic scales. This trend has been predicted by radiative transfer simulations of galactic winds as a result of resonant scattering in outflows. While there is a lack of correlation between the spectral properties and the spatial scale lengths of our LAHs, we find a correlation between the width of the line in the LAH and the halo flux fraction. Interestingly, UV bright galaxies (MUV < −20) show broader, more redshifted, and less asymmetric Lyα lines in their haloes. The most significant correlation found is for the FWHM of the line and the UV continuum slope of the galaxy, suggesting that the redder galaxies have broader Lyα lines. The generally broad and red line shapes found in the halo component suggest that the Lyα haloes are powered either by scattering processes through an outflowing medium, fluorescent emission from outflowing cold clumps of gas, or a mix of both. Considering the large diversity of the Lyα line profiles observed in our sample and the lack of strong correlation, the interpretation of our results is still broadly open and underlines the need for realistic spatially resolved models of the LAHs.
Key words: galaxies: high-redshift / galaxies: formation / galaxies: evolution / cosmology: observations
© ESO 2020
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