Volume 635, March 2020
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||25 March 2020|
Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam,
Science Park 904,
2 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
3 Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-Chilena de Astronomía (CNRS, UMI 3386), Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
4 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
5 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago, Chile
6 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
7 INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
8 Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
9 Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Boulevard de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France
10 Institute for Particle Physics and Astrophysics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
11 Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile
12 Escuela de Ingeniería Industrial, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile
13 Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM – Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326, 13388 Marseille, France
14 DOTA, ONERA, Université Paris Saclay, 91123 Palaiseau France
15 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
16 Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
Accepted: 25 November 2019
Context. Shadows in scattered light images of protoplanetary disks are a common feature and support the presence of warps or misalignments between disk regions. These warps are possibly caused by an inclined (sub-)stellar companion embedded in the disk.
Aims. We aim to study the morphology of the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 139614 based on the first scattered light observations of this disk, which we model with the radiative transfer code MCMax3D.
Methods. We obtained J- and H-band observations that show strong azimuthal asymmetries in polarized scattered light with VLT/SPHERE. In the outer disk, beyond ~30 au, a broad shadow spans a range of ~240 deg in position angle, in the east. A bright ring at ~16 au also shows an azimuthally asymmetric brightness, with the faintest side roughly coincidental with the brightest region of the outer disk. Additionally, two arcs are detected at ~34 and ~50 au. We created a simple four-zone approximation to a warped disk model of HD 139614 in order to qualitatively reproduce these features. The location and misalignment of the disk components were constrained from the shape and location of the shadows they cast.
Results. We find that the shadow on the outer disk covers a range of position angles too wide to be explained by a single inner misaligned component. Our model requires a minimum of two separate misaligned zones – or a continuously warped region – to cast this broad shadow on the outer disk. A small misalignment of ~4° between adjacent components can reproduce most of the observed shadow features.
Conclusions. Multiple misaligned disk zones, potentially mimicking a warp, can explain the observed broad shadows in the HD 139614 disk. A planetary mass companion in the disk, located on an inclined orbit, could be responsible for such a feature and for the dust-depleted gap responsible for a dip in the SED.
Key words: protoplanetary disks / techniques: polarimetric / radiative transfer / scattering
The reduced images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/635/A121
© ESO 2020
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