Volume 634, February 2020
|Number of page(s)||11|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||28 January 2020|
Revived fossil plasma sources in galaxy clusters⋆
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
2 International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research – Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
3 ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
4 INAF – IRA, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
5 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 93/2, 40129 Bologna, Italy
6 Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg, Germany
7 Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., MS-4, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
8 Centre for Astrophysics Research, School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK
9 GEPI & USN, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France
10 Department of Physics & Electronics, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa
Accepted: 3 November 2019
It is well established that particle acceleration by shocks and turbulence in the intra-cluster medium can produce cluster-scale synchrotron emitting sources. However, the detailed physics of these particle acceleration processes is still not well understood. One of the main open questions is the role of fossil relativistic electrons that have been deposited in the intracluster medium (ICM) by radio galaxies. These synchrotron-emitting electrons are very difficult to study as their radiative lifetime is only tens of Myr at gigahertz frequencies, and they are therefore a relatively unexplored population. Despite the typical steep radio spectrum due to synchrotron losses, these fossil electrons are barely visible even at radio frequencies well below the gigahertz level. However, when a pocket of fossil radio plasma is compressed, it boosts the visibility at sub-gigahertz frequencies, creating what are known as radio phoenices. This compression can be the result of bulk motion and shocks in the ICM due to merger activity. In this paper we demonstrate the discovery potential of low-frequency radio sky surveys to find and study revived fossil plasma sources in galaxy clusters. We used the 150 MHz TIFR GMRT Sky Survey and the 1.4 GHz NVSS sky survey to identify candidate radio phoenices. A subset of three candidates was studied in detail using deep multi-band radio observations (LOFAR and GMRT), X-ray obserations (Chandra or XMM-Newton), and archival optical observations. Two of the three sources are new discoveries. Using these observations, we identified common observational properties (radio morphology, ultra-steep spectrum, X-ray luminosity, dynamical state) that will enable us to identify this class of sources more easily, and will help us to understand the physical origin of these sources.
Key words: radiation mechanisms: non-thermal / X-rays: galaxies: clusters / galaxies: clusters: individual: Abell 2593 / galaxies: clusters: individual: Abell 2048 / galaxies: clusters: individual: SDSS-C4-DR3-3088 / galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium
All reduced images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/634/A4
© ESO 2020
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