Volume 632, December 2019
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||25 November 2019|
INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova,
Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5,
2 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
3 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
4 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Univ., UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne, Paris Cité, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
5 Univ. Lyon, Univ. Lyon 1, ENS de Lyon, CNRS, CRAL UMR 5574, 69230 Saint-Genis-Laval, France
6 Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, France
7 Université de Lyon, UJM-Saint-Etienne, CNRS, Institut d’Optique Graduate School, Laboratoire Hubert Curien UMR 5516, 42023 Saint-Etienne, France
8 Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015, USA
9 Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-Chilena de Astronomía (CNRS, UMI 3386), Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
10 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
11 Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107, USA
12 European Southern Observatory (ESO), Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago, Chile
13 SPGroup, ELEN/ICTEAM, UCLouvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
14 Nucleo de Astronomia, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile
15 Escuela de Ingenieria Industrial, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile
16 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy
17 Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK
18 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy
19 Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
20 Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
21 Université Côte d’Azur, OCA, CNRS, Lagrange, France
22 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate, Italy
23 STAR Institute, Université de Liège, Allée du Six Août 19c, 4000 Liège, Belgium
24 Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso, Chile
25 Núcleo Milenio Formación Planetaria – NPF, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaíso, Chile
26 Monash Centre for Astrophysics (MoCA) and School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton Vic 3800, Australia
27 DOTA, ONERA, Univ. Paris Saclay, 91123, Palaiseau, France
28 Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg, Germany
Accepted: 24 October 2019
Context. PDS 70 is a young (5.4 Myr), nearby (~113 pc) star hosting a known transition disk with a large gap. Recent observations with SPHERE and NACO in the near-infrared (NIR) allowed us to detect a planetary mass companion, PDS 70 b, within the disk cavity. Moreover, observations in Hα with MagAO and MUSE revealed emission associated to PDS 70 b and to another new companion candidate, PDS 70 c, at a larger separation from the star. PDS 70 is the only multiple planetary system at its formation stage detected so far through direct imaging.
Aims. Our aim is to confirm the discovery of the second planet PDS 70 c using SPHERE at VLT, to further characterize its physical properties, and search for additional point sources in this young planetary system.
Methods. We re-analyzed archival SPHERE NIR observations and obtained new data in Y, J, H and K spectral bands for a total of four different epochs. The data were reduced using the data reduction and handling pipeline and the SPHERE data center. We then applied custom routines (e.g., ANDROMEDA and PACO) to subtract the starlight.
Results. We re-detect both PDS 70 b and c and confirm that PDS 70 c is gravitationally bound to the star. We estimate this second planet to be less massive than 5 MJup and with a Teff around 900 K. Also, it has a low gravity with logg between 3.0 and 3.5 dex. In addition, a third object has been identified at short separation (~0.12′′) from the star and gravitationally bound to the star. Its spectrum is however very blue, meaning that we are probably seeing stellar light reflected by dust and our analysis seems to demonstrate that it is a feature of the inner disk. We cannot however completely exclude the possibility that it is a planetary mass object enshrouded by a dust envelope. In this latter case, its mass should be of the order of a few tens of M⊕. Moreover, we propose a possible structure for the planetary system based on our data, and find that this structure cannot be stable on a long timescale.
Key words: instrumentation: spectrographs / methods: data analysis / techniques: imaging spectroscopy / planetary systems / stars: individual: PDS70
The reduced images are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/632/A25
© ESO 2019
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