Volume 632, December 2019
|Number of page(s)||21|
|Published online||26 November 2019|
XIX. Galaxy NGC 4013: a diffusion-dominated radio halo with plane-parallel disk and vertical halo magnetic fields⋆
Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France
2 Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Astronomisches Institut (AIRUB), 44780 Bochum, Germany
3 Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Research Department: Plasmas with Complex Interactions, 44780 Bochum, Germany
4 Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków, Poland
5 Department of Physics, Engineering Physics & Astronomy, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada
6 Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany
7 Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 S. University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107, USA
8 Universität Hamburg, Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg, Germany
9 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada
Accepted: 17 June 2019
Context. The radio continuum halos of edge-on spiral galaxies have diverse morphologies, with different magnetic field properties and cosmic ray (CR) transport processes into the halo.
Aims. Using the Continuum HAloes in Nearby Galaxies – an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) radio continuum data from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in two frequency bands, 6 GHz (C-band) and 1.5 GHz (L-band), we analyzed the radio properties, including polarization and the transport processes of the CR electrons (CREs), in the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4013. Supplementary LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) data at 150 MHz are used to study the low-frequency properties of this galaxy and X-ray data are used to investigate the central region.
Methods. We determined the total radio flux densities (central source, disk, halo and total) as well as the radio scale heights of the radio continuum emission at both CHANG-ES frequencies and at the LOFAR frequency. We derived the magnetic field orientation from CHANG-ES polarization data and rotation measure synthesis (RM synthesis). Furthermore, we used the revised equipartition formula to calculate the magnetic field strength. Lastly, we modeled the processes of CR transport into the halo with the 1D SPINNAKER model.
Results. The central point source dominates the radio continuum emission with a mean of ∼35% of the total flux density emerging from the central source in both CHANG-ES bands. Complementary X-ray data from Chandra show one dominant point source in the central part. The XMM-Newton spectrum shows hard X-rays, but no clear AGN classification is possible at this time. The radio continuum halo of NGC 4013 in C-band is rather small, while the low-frequency LOFAR data reveal a large halo. The scale height analysis shows that Gaussian fits, with halo scale heights of 1.2 kpc in C-band, 2.0 kpc in L-band, and 3.1 kpc at 150 MHz, better represent the intensity profiles than do exponential fits. The frequency dependence gives clear preference to diffusive CRE transport. The radio halo of NGC 4013 is relatively faint and contributes only 40% and 56% of the total flux density in C-band and L-band, respectively. This is less than in galaxies with wind-driven halos. While the SPINNAKER models of the radio profiles show that advection with a launching velocity of ∼20 km s−1 (increasing to ∼50 km s−1 at 4 kpc height) fits the data equally well or slightly better, diffusion is the dominating transport process up to heights of 1–2 kpc. The polarization data reveal plane-parallel, regular magnetic fields within the entire disk and vertical halo components indicating the presence of an axisymmetric field having a radial component pointing outwards. The mean magnetic field strength of the disk of NGC 4013 of 6.6 μG is rather small. Large-scale vertical fields are observed in the halo out to heights of about 6 kpc.
Conclusions. The interaction and the low star formation rate (SFR) across the disk of NGC 4013 probably influence the appearance of its radio continuum halo and are correlated with the low total magnetic field strength. Several observable quantities give consistent evidence that the CR transport in the halo of NGC 4013 is diffusive: the frequency dependence of the synchrotron scale height, the disk/halo flux density ratio, the vertical profile of the synchrotron spectral index, the small propagation speed measured modeled with SPINNAKER, and the low temperature of the X-ray emitting hot gas.
Key words: diffusion / X-rays: galaxies / galaxies: halos / galaxies: individual: NGC 4013 / galaxies: magnetic fields / radio continuum: galaxies
A copy of the reduced images is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/632/A13
© Y. Stein et al. 2019
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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