Volume 631, November 2019
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||28 October 2019|
From the stellar properties of HD 219134 to the internal compositions of its transiting exoplanets
INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera,
Via E. Bianchi 46,
2 Institut of Computational Sciences, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
3 Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France
4 Institut Universitaire de France, 103 boulevard Saint-Michel, 75005 Paris, France
5 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 92195 Meudon Cedex, France
6 Univ. Rennes, CNRS, IPR (Institut de Physique de Rennes) – UMR 6251, 35000 Rennes, France
7 Univ. Lyon, Univ. Lyon1, Ens de Lyon, CNRS, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon UMR 5574, 69230 Saint-Genis-Laval, France
Accepted: 20 September 2019
Context. The harvest of exoplanet discoveries has opened the area of exoplanet characterisation. But this cannot be achieved without a careful analysis of the host star parameters.
Aims. The system of HD 219134 hosts two transiting exoplanets and at least two additional non-transiting exoplanets. We revisit the properties of this system using direct measurements of the stellar parameters to investigate the composition of the two transiting exoplanets.
Methods. We used the VEGA/CHARA interferometer to measure the angular diameter of HD 219134. We also derived the stellar density from the transits light curves, which finally gives a direct estimate of the mass. This allowed us to infer the mass, radius, and density of the two transiting exoplanets of the system. We then used an inference model to obtain the internal parameters of these two transiting exoplanets.
Results. We measure a stellar radius, density, and mass of R⋆ = 0.726 ± 0.014 R⊙, ρ⋆ = 1.82 ± 0.19 ρ⊙, and M⋆ = 0.696 ± 0.078 M⊙, respectively; there is a correlation of 0.46 between R⋆ and M⋆. This new mass is lower than that derived from the C2kSMO stellar evolutionary model, which provides a mass range of 0.755−0.810 (±0.040) M⊙. Moreover, we find that planet b and c have smaller radii than previously estimated of 1.500 ± 0.057 and 1.415 ± 0.049 R⊕ respectively; this clearly puts these planets out of the gap in the exoplanetary radii distribution and validates their super-Earth nature. Planet b is more massive than planet c, but the former is possibly less dense. We investigate whether this could be caused by partial melting of the mantle and find that tidal heating due to non-zero eccentricity of planet b may be powerful enough.
Conclusions. The system of HD 219134 constitutes a very valuable benchmark for both stellar physics and exoplanetary science. The characterisation of the stellar hosts, and in particular the direct determination of the stellar density, radius, and mass, should be more extensively applied to provide accurate exoplanets properties and calibrate stellar models.
Key words: stars: fundamental parameters / stars: individual: HD 219134 / planetary systems / techniques: interferometric / methods: numerical / planets and satellites: fundamental parameters
© ESO 2019
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