Volume 619, November 2018
|Number of page(s)||21|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||16 November 2018|
Grid of upper atmosphere models for 1–40 M⊕ planets: application to CoRoT-7 b and HD 219134 b,c
Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences,
2 Institute of Computational Modelling of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
3 Siberian Federal University, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
4 Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Vienna, Austria
5 Institute of Physics/IGAM, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, 8010 Graz, Austria
Accepted: 6 September 2018
There is growing observational and theoretical evidence suggesting that atmospheric escape is a key driver of planetary evolution. Commonly, planetary evolution models employ simple analytic formulae (e.g. energy limited escape) that are often inaccurate, and more detailed physical models of atmospheric loss usually only give snapshots of an atmosphere’s structure and are difficult to use for evolutionary studies. To overcome this problem, we have upgraded and employed an existing upper atmosphere hydrodynamic code to produce a large grid of about 7000 models covering planets with masses 1–39 M⊕ with hydrogen-dominated atmospheres and orbiting late-type stars. The modelled planets have equilibrium temperatures ranging between 300 and 2000 K. For each considered stellar mass, we account for three different values of the high-energy stellar flux (i.e. low, moderate, and high activity). For each computed model, we derived the atmospheric temperature, number density, bulk velocity, X-ray and EUV (XUV) volume heating rates, and abundance of the considered species as a function of distance from the planetary centre. From these quantities, we estimate the positions of the maximum dissociation and ionisation, the mass-loss rate, and the effective radius of the XUV absorption. We show that our results are in good agreement with previously published studies employing similar codes. We further present an interpolation routine capable to extract the modelling output parameters for any planet lying within the grid boundaries. We used the grid to identify the connection between the system parameters and the resulting atmospheric properties. We finally applied the grid and the interpolation routine to estimate atmospheric evolutionary tracks for the close-in, high-density planets CoRoT-7 b and HD 219134 b,c. Assuming that the planets ever accreted primary, hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, we find that the three planets must have lost them within a few Myr.
Key words: hydrodynamics / planets and satellites: atmospheres / planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability / planets and satellites: individual: CoRot-7 b / planets and satellites: individual: HD 219134 b / planets and satellites: individual: HD 219134 c
© ESO 2018
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