Volume 632, December 2019
|Number of page(s)||8|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||29 November 2019|
The Kepler-11 system: evolution of the stellar high-energy emission and initial planetary atmospheric mass fractions
Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences,
2 Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
3 Institute of Computational Modelling, SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
4 Siberian Federal University, 660041 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
5 Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Vienna, Austria
6 Observatoire astronomique de l’Université de Genève 51 ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny, Switzerland
7 Institute of Physics/IGAM, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, 8010 Graz, Austria
Accepted: 16 October 2019
The atmospheres of close-in planets are strongly influenced by mass loss driven by the high-energy (X-ray and extreme ultraviolet, EUV) irradiation of the host star, particularly during the early stages of evolution. We recently developed a framework to exploit this connection and enable us to recover the past evolution of the stellar high-energy emission from the present-day properties of its planets, if the latter retain some remnants of their primordial hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. Furthermore, the framework can also provide constraints on planetary initial atmospheric mass fractions. The constraints on the output parameters improve when more planets can be simultaneously analysed. This makes the Kepler-11 system, which hosts six planets with bulk densities between 0.66 and 2.45 g cm−3, an ideal target. Our results indicate that the star has likely evolved as a slow rotator (slower than 85% of the stars with similar masses), corresponding to a high-energy emission at 150 Myr of between 1 and 10 times that of the current Sun. We also constrain the initial atmospheric mass fractions for the planets, obtaining a lower limit of 4.1% for planet c, a range of 3.7–5.3% for planet d, a range of 11.1–14% for planet e, a range of 1–15.6% for planet f, and a range of 4.7–8.7% for planet g assuming a disc dispersal time of 1 Myr. For planet b, the range remains poorly constrained. Our framework also suggests slightly higher masses for planets b, c, and f than have been suggested based on transit timing variation measurements. We coupled our results with published planet atmosphere accretion models to obtain a temperature (at 0.25 AU, the location of planet f) and dispersal time of the protoplanetary disc of 550 K and 1 Myr, although these results may be affected by inconsistencies in the adopted system parameters. This work shows that our framework is capable of constraining important properties of planet formation models.
Key words: hydrodynamics / planets and satellites: atmospheres / planets and satellites: individual: Kepler-11 system / planets and satellites: physical evolution
© ESO 2019
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